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o F 

P A L L A D I Oi 


Treating particularly on 


B A S I L I C A S, or 

Courts of yudicature. 
X I S T E S, or Places 
of Exercife, &c. 

Tranflated from the ITALIAN, 


The Dejigns carefully copied by B. Cole, Engraver. 


Printed in the Year of our Lord M.DCC.XXXVI. 


* % ■* 

a^4/ti'r J J (cce at *Jcnicr.ict. '^Unw-e C/ia/ihr/ . 

f£.^Lyi/i,Li De/(,i . 



AVING already treated as fully as I thought 
proper of Private Edifices (or the 
Houfes, and other Apartments, which belong 
to particular Perfons) and having mentioned 
all the Directions which are moft necefTary, and ouo-ht to 
be obferved about the fame ; and having moreover given the 
Defigns of feveral Edifices which I have built myfelf, whe- 
ther within or without the City, and alfo of thofe erected 
by the Ancients, according to Vitruvius ; 'tis highly requi- 
fite that, turning my Treatife to more excellent and magni- 
ficent Buildings, I mould now proceed to difcourfe of Pub- 
lick Fabricks ; wherein (becaufe they confift of larger Di- 
menfions, and are beautified with more curious Decorations 
than Private ones, as being for the Service and Convenience 
of every-body) Princes have a very large Field to demon- 
ftrate to the World the Greatnefs of their Souls ; and 

I i 2 Architects 

126 The Introduction. 

Architects have likewife the faireft Opportunity to fhew 
their own Abilities in artful and excellent Inventions. For 
which Reafon, it is my Defire, as well in this Book, wherein 
I begin my Antiquities^ as in thofe others, which (God 
willing) are to follow, that by fo much the greater Di- 
ligence may be ufed in weighing well, and reflecting 
on, the little I mall fay, and the Defigns I mall give; 
by how much greater Trouble, and more tedious Watchings, 
I have been reducing thofe Fragments, which remain of 
ancient Buildings, into fuch a Form, that, I hope, the Ad- 
mirers of Antiquity may reap Pleafure therefrom, and the 
Lovers of Architecture receive much Advantage ; efpecially, 
fince much more is learnt, in a fhort Time, from good Ex- 
amples, or Originals by Menfu ration, and by feeing com- 
plete Buildings, with all their Parts, defcribed on a fmall 
piece of Paper, than can be learnt from Words in a long 
Time, whereby the Reader becomes able, in Idea onlyj 
and with great Difficulty, to attain to a firm and certain 
Knowledge of what he reads, and to reduce it afterwards 
into Practice with great Fatigue. Every Perfon, who 
knows any thing, may very plainly perceive how excellent 
the Manner was which the Ancients ufed in their Buildings; 
fince, after fo long a Space of Time, after fo many De- 
ftructions and Changes of Empires, there ftill continue in 
Italy^ and out of it, the Footfteps, or Ruins, of fo great 
a Number of their magnificent Edifices ; by which Means 
we come to a certain Knowledge of the Roman Virtue and 
Greatnefs, which otherwife, in all Probability, had never 
been believed. In this Third Book, therefore, I fhall obferve 
the following Method in ranging the Defigns which will be 
therein contained. Firft. I fhall give thofe of Highways, 
Streets, and Bridges, being that Branch of Architecture 
which belongs to the Ornament of Cities and Provinces, 
and which ferves for the Convenience of all People in ge- 
neral : For, as in the other Edifices erected by the Ancients, 
it may with Eafe be difcovered that they fpared no Pains or 
Expences to bring them to that Pitch of Perfection, which 
is allowed them even by our Imperfection ; fo they took 


The Introduction. 127 

great Care in the Management of their Ways, finishing 
them fo as that, even now, their Greatnefs and Magnani- 
mity may be learnt thereby ; fince, in order to render 
them more convenient and fhort, they penetrated Moun- 
tains, drained Fens, and erected Bridges, by which Means 
they made thofe PafTages eafy and plain, which were in- 
terrupted by uneven Vallies, or rapid Rivers. In the next 
Place I fhall treat of Forums, or publick Places (according 
as the Greeks and Romans made them) and alfo of thofe 
Fabricks which ought to be built about fuch Squares : 
And fince that Place, among the reft, well deferves fome 
Confideration, where the Judges adminifter Juftice, which 
the Ancients called a Bafilica, I fhall give the particular 
Designs thereof. But forafmuch as it is not fufficient that 
Countries and Cities be divided ever fo well into their feveral 
Difcricls, and regulated by wholefome Laws ; nor that we 
have Magiftrates, who, as Executors of the Laws, keep the 
Citizens in Awe ; if Men be not likewife rendered wife 
by the Affiftance of Learning, and ftrong and healthy by 
the Exercife of their Bodies (to become thereby capable both 
to govern others and themfelves, and to make good Defence 
againft fuch as would opprefs them) this is the principal 
Reafon why the Inhabitants of any Country, being at firft 
divided into many little Cantons, united afterwards and 
founded Cities. And for this Reafon alfo (according to Vi- 
truvius) the ancient Grecians made certain Fabricks in their 
Cities, which they called Peleftras, and Xyftes> to which 
the Philofophers reforted to difpute and difcourfe about 
the Sciences, and the Youth exercifed themfelves every Day : 
As alfo the whole People flocked thither at certain Times, 
to fee the Athletes (or Fencers and Wreftlers) play their 
Prizes. I fhall therefore conclude this third Book with the 
Deiigns of thefe Buildings, which fhall be followed by thofe 
of Temples for the Exercife of Religion, without which no 
civil Policy can poffibly be preferved. 

K k THE 


ff.Me Jht/ft,. 





Of High-ways and Streets. 



H E High-ways ought to be fhort, commo- 
dious, fafe, pleafant, and beautiful. They will 
be fhort and commodious, if made in a direct 
Line ; and fo large, that neither Carriages nor 
Horfes hinder each other as they meet : For which Rea- 
lon there was a Law among the Ancients, that where the 
Ways were ftrait, they fhould be eight Foot broad at 
leaft ; and where they were crooked or winding, at leafr 
fixteen. The Ways will be further commodious, if they 
are made every where equal ; that is, that there are no 
Places in them but where Armies may eafily march, and 
that there is no Difficulty of Paffage, either from Waters 
or Rivers : Whence we read, that the Emperor Trajan, ha- 
ving a particular Regard to thefe two Circumftances (which 


i 3 o PALLAD /O's 

are absolutely requisite in all Ways) when he repaired the 
famous Jlppian Way, which Time had in many Places im- 
paired, he drained Bogs, levelled Mountains, and filled up 
Vallies ; and, as he made Bridges where they were ne- 
ceffary, he rendered Travelling there eafy and expeditious. 
The Ways will be fafe, if made on high Places; or if 
there be, as was the Manner of the Ancients, a Ditch and 
Banks on each Side, when made in the Plain ; and that 
there be no Places too near, where Highway-men or Ene- 
mies may conveniently conceal themfelves : fb that Stran- 
gers and Armies may preferve themfelves from Surprize in 
fuch open Ways, and readily difcover any Ambufcades 
which might be laid for them. Such Ways then, as have 
the three Qualifications aforefaid, muft of NeceiTity be 
beautiful, and very agreeable to PafTengers ; for in the 
Country, their ftrait Direction, and their Conveniencies, 
befides the various and diftant Profpe&s they afford, muft 
very much leiTen the Fatigue, and fill the Mind with Sa- 
tisfaction, prefenting always new Landfchapes to the Eye. 
Nothing can be a more agreeable Sight in a City, than a 
ftrait, even, and large Street, which has magnificent Houfes 
on each Side, and is built with fuch Ornaments as are 
mentioned in the preceding Books. Now as the Streets 
are beautified by Buildings in Towns, fo are the Ways 
adorned by Trees in the Country ; which Trees, if planted 
on both Sides, not only delight our Minds by their Ver- 
dure, but highly refrefh us with their Shade. Of fuch 
Kinds of Ways out of the City, there are feveral in the 
Vkentine : And, among the reft, thofe are moft celebrated 
which are at Cicogna> the Villa of Count Edward Thiene, 
and at Styinto, the Villa of Count OElavio of the fame 
Family, and which, after I had directed them, were beau- 
tified and adorned by the Diligence and Induftry of thofe 
curious Gentlemen. The Ways fo made, afford number- 
lefs Conveniencies, becaufe, being ftrait, and fomewhat more 
elevated than the reft of the Ground, always fpeaking of 
thofe in the Country, the Enemy may be difcovered at a 
Diftance, as I faid before, in Time of War, whereby a 




General is at Liberty to take fuch Refolution as he thinks 
beft : Moreover, at other Times, great Advantage arifes 
from their Shortnefs and Eafinefs, by Reafon of the Trade 
and Commerce that is carried on by them : But fince all 
Ways are either within or without the City, I mail firft 
mention the particular Qualifications which are requifite id 
thofe within the City, and then defcribe how thofe mould 
be made which are without. Yet, forafmuch as military 
Ways are one Thing, and non- military are another, the 
firft being fuch as pafs through the Middle of the City s 
lead from one City to another, and ferve for the common 
Ufe of all PafTengers, for Carriages to drive* or Armies to 
march ; and the fecond being fuch as ilTue out of the other, 
leading from one military Way to another, or are made for 
the Service and Convenience of fome particular Villa : I 
fhall treat of the military Ways only in the following 
Chapters, quite omitting the non-military ones, becaufe 
thefe fhould be regulated by thofe ; and becaufe the more 
like they are, the more commendable they will be. 



i3a PALLAD /O's 


Of the Diftribution of the Ways, or Streets, 

within the City. 

IN the Diftribution or Compartment of the Ways in a 
City, or a Town, particular Care muft be always taken 
with refpedl: to the Temperament of the Air, and the Cli- 
mate of the Country ; becaufe in fuch Places, where the 
Air is cold or temperate, the Streets fhould be made large 
and noble, fince by that Means the City will become more 
wholefome, commodious, and beautiful ; for the freer and 
lefs piercing the Air is, the lefs, doubtlefs, will it offend 
the Head ; and therefore, if a Town is fituated in a cold 
Place, or in a keen Air, and the Houfes thereof are high, 
the Streets fhould be made the larger, that the Sun may 
vifit them in every Part. As for what relates to Conve- 
nience, fince there is more Room for Men, Cattle, and 
Carriages in large Streets than narrow ones, there is no 
Doubt but the former are much more commodious than the 
latter : And it being likewife evident, that broad Streets 
are more lightfome, and that one Side of fuch a Street is 
therefore lefs eclipfed by the oppofite Side, the Beauty of 
Churches and Palaces muft needs be feen to greater Ad- 
vantage in large than in narrow Streets, whence the Mind 
is more agreeably entertain'd, and the City more adorn'd : 
But in cafe the Town is fituated in a hot Climate, the 
Streets muft be made narrow, and the Houfes built high ; 
that by the Shade and Narrownefs of the PafTage, the Heat 
of the Air may be tempered, and by Confequenee may 
become more healthy : As this is well known by the 
Inftance of Rome, which, according to Cornelius Tacitus, 
grew more hot, and lefs healthy, after Nero had en- 
larged its Streets, in order to make it more beautiful. 



In this Cafe, however, the Street that is fulleft of the prin- 
cipal Trades, and the moft frequented by Strangers, ought 
to be made large, and adorn'd with magnificent and pom- 
pous Fabricks, for the greater Ornament and Convenience 
of the City ; becaufe fuch Strangers as pafs thro' it, will 
readily conclude, that the other Streets of the City bear 
a Proportion to the Largenefs and Beauty of this. The 
principal Streets, which we have term'd ??iilifary, ought to 
be fo comparted, as to be narrow, and to lead in a ftrait 
Line from the Gates to the principal Place or Square of the 
City ; and likewife, if the Situation will permit it, fometimes 
from one Gate directly to the other on the oppofite Side; and 
it ought to be remembered, that according to the Compafs 
of the City, there mould be made one or more fuch Squares 
a little lefs than the principal one, in the fame Street, and 
on the fame Line, or in any other fuch Street, and leading 
from which of the Gates you pleafe. The other Streets, 
at lead the moft beautiful of them, ought not only to 
lead to the chief Square, or open Place, but alfo to the 
moft noted Churches, Palaces, Porticos, and other publick 
Edifices : But above all, particular Care muft be taken in 
this Diftribution of the Streets, that (according to Vitruvius\ 
fixth Chapter of his firft Book) they do not face any of the 
principal Winds directly, left they fhould blow violently into 
the fame, but that they may come broken, gentle, purified? 
and fpent; for otherwife you will fall into the fame In- 
convenience with thofe of old, who comparted the Streets 
of Meteltnum ; from which City the whole Ifland of Lesbes 
has taken its Name. The Ways, or Streets, of a Town ought 
always to be pav'd ; and, in the Confulfhip of Emilius, 
we are told, they begun to pave the Streets of Rome, fome 
whereof are feen at this Day, and are all even, confifting 
of Stones unequal in their Size and Angles : The Perform- 
ance of which Sort of Paving, mail be taken Notice of 
in its proper Place. But if you would have the Place 
for the Paflage of Men divided from that for the Ufe of 
Carriages and Beafts, Porticos, in my Opinion, mould be 


134 ?4 L LA D /O's 

made on each Side of the Streety under the Cover where- 
of, the Citizens may tranfadt their Affairs, without being 
injured by the Sun, the Rain, or the Snow; and almoft 
all the Streets of Padua, which is a very ancient City, 
and famous for its Univerfity, are in this Manner. Or 
if there be no Porticos, in which Cafe the Streets will be 
larger, and more pleafant, a Border ought to be pav'd 
on each Side with broad Stones, or fquare Tiles, which 
are a kind of Bricks fomewhat larger than ^uadrels ; be- 
caufe in walking they never hurt the Feet: So that the 
Middle of the Street will be left for Carriages and Beafts, 
and may be paved with any hard Stone whatfoever. 
There ought to be a Kennel in the Middle of the Street, 
towards which each Side is gently to Hope, that the Rain- 
water, v/hich falls off the Houfes, may run all into one 
Channel, and have a free and eafy Courfe ; by which 
Means the Streets will be left clean, and no bad Air will 
be produced ; which will happen when fuch Waters are 
collected into one Place, and ftagnate there. 

JSi/ ^rtta-D SKr-i 

niiiiiHiiiiiiiii iHiuiiiMiiiiiiiiiiMMiiiiiiniiiiiiiumriiimif f 




Of the High-Way s, or Roads without the City. 


THE Ways without the City muft be made large, 
convenient on both Sides, and be planted with 
Trees, by whofe Shade the PafTengers will be fecured from 
the Heat of the Surt in Summer, and their Eyes agreeably 
refrefh'd by their Verdure. The Ancients were very care- 
ful and laborious about fuch Ways ; and created Prefects, 
Overfeers, or Curators thereof, that they might continue in 
good Repair. They made feveral of thofe Ways, which, 
tho' fpoilt by Time, yet flill preferve in fome Places the 
Memory of their Beauty and Convenience : But the Fla- 
minian and Appian Ways are the moff. famous. The 
firft was made by the Conful Flaminius, after his Con- 
quer!: over the Ligurians (or Genoefe.) It took its Beginning 
from the Gate Flamentana (now called Porto del PopoloJ 
and pailing thro' Tufcany and Utnbria, led to Ariminumy 
from whence it was afterwards continued by Marcus L,e- 
pidus his Collegue to Bononia (now Bologna) and winding 
round the Marfhes, near the Foot of the Alps, ended at 
Aquileia. The Appian Way owed its Name to Appius Clau- 
dius, who made it with great Labour and Expence; whence, 
on Account of its wondrous Magnificence and Art, it was 
called, The ^ueen of Roads. This Way began from the Ca- 
lif eo (or Pompeys Amphitheatre) and leading thro' the Porta 
Capena (a Gate of Rome fo called) it extended as far as 
Brundufuwi. It was carried no farther than Capua by Ap- 
pius ; and who was the Author of it beyond, is uncertain, 
tho' by fome it is imagined to be Cefar, becaufe Plutarch 
fays, that the Care of this Way was committed to Cefar, 
and he laid out a large Sum of Money upon it. It was 
laft of all repaired by the Emperor Trajan, who, as I before 
obferved, by draining of Marfhes, levelling of Mountains, 
filling up of Vallies, and making Bridges where it was 

M m requifite, 

136 PA L L A D I O's 

requilite, made it both expeditious and agreeable to Paf- 
fengers. The Aurelian Way is a4fo very famous ; fo called 
from AureliuS) a Citizen of Rome, who made it. It took 
its Beginning from the Aurelian Gate, now called, Tlie 
G&te of St. Pancrace ; and extending itfelf along the ma- 
ritime Places of Tufcanj/y ended at Pi/a. The Numentan^ 
the Preneflin, and the Labican Ways, were all equally ce- 
lebrated. The firft began from the Gate Fiminalis, now 
called, The Gate of St. Agnes, and extended to the City 
of Numentum : The fecond at the Gate Efquilina^ now 
called that of St. JLaureitce : The third from the Gate Ne- 
via (which is now the P orta-?naggiore) and both led to 
the City of Prenefe^ now called Pe/Iefrino, and to the ce- 
lebrated City of Labicana. There were feveral other Ways, 
fuch as the Via Salaria, the Collatitia, the Latina, and 
others, which Authors have mentioned and made famous, 
every one of which took its Name either from the Man 
who made it, or from the Gate where it begun, or from 
the Place where it ended : But the P ortuenfan Way, which 
reached from Rome to OJiia^ furpafled them all, no doubt, 
for Beauty and Convenience ; becaufe, as Alberti affirms, 
it was divided into two Ways, between each of which there 
was a Courfe of Stones a Foot higher than the reft of the 
Way, and which ferved for a Diviiion ; lb that People 
went one Way,, and returned the other, whereby they 
avoided all Hindrance or Joftling of each other ; and it 
was indeed a very commodious Invention, confidering the 
vaft Concourfe of People that flock'd then to Rome from 
all Parts of the World. The Ancients made two Kinds 
of thofe military Roads ; that is, one was paved with 
Stones, and the other covered all over, with Gravel and 
Sand. The Ways of the former kind were divided into 
three Spaces, as far as by fome Remains of them we. have 
been able to conjecture. On the middlemoft, which was 
higher than the other two, and which rofe a little in the 
Middle, that no Water might reft upon it, but run. off 
immediately, went the People who travelled on Foot. It 
was paved with irregular Stones ; that is, fuch as had un- 


equal . Sides and Angles ; in which Kind of Paving, as is 
elfewhere obferved, they made ufe of a fquare kule of Lead, 
which they opened and fhut according to the Figure of 
the Stones ; by which Means they joined them perfectly 
well together and with great Difpatch. The other two 
Spaces on each Side of this, were made a little lower, 
and covered with Sand and fine Gravel, being appro- 
priated for the Paffage of Horfes and other Cattle. Each 
of thefe Spaces were but half as large as that in the Middle, 
from which they were divided by a Range of Stones 
pitch'd Edge-ways ; and there were other Stones fomewhat 
higher, at certain Diftances, on which they got up when 
they mounted on Horleback, the Ancients not having had 
the [Jfe of Stirrups. Belides the Stones for this Purpole, 
there were others a considerable deal higher, fet at an 
equal Diiiance, on which were engraved the Miles of the 
whole Journey. Thefe were fet Up, and the Ways mea- 
fured, by Cneus Gracchus. The military Ways after the 
fecond Manner; that is, thofe made of Sand and Gravely 
were raifed by the Ancients a little in the Middle ; for 
which Reafon, no Water being able to reft upon thdrn, 
afld conlifting of Matter vety apt to became dry in a 
fhort Time, they were always even arid frnooth, without 
either Duft or Dirt; Of this Soft there k one to be feen 
in FriuJiy which leads into Hungary^ by the Inhabitants 
it is called the Pofthtttoous Way. There is another of them 
in the Country of Padua, which beginning froth the faid 
City, at the Place called Argere, paffes thro' the mtdrt 
of Ckogna, the Villa of the two Brothers, the Counts Ed- 
ward and Theodore de T/yieni^ and leads to thofe Alps which 
divide Italy from Germany. The following' Draught * is 
of the fir& Manner of Ways, by which yon may under- 
ftand h®w the Oftian Way Was made ; but I have made no 
Defi'gn of the fecond Manner of Ways, becaufe it is, in 
itfeif, very eafy ; neither is there any Difficulty to make 
them fwdlirig towards the Middle, in order to make the 
Waters run oJf. 

- - ■ -- — ■' 

* Plate I. 

A. The 

i 3 8 PALLADIOh 

A. 'the middle Space for the Parage of People on Foot. 

B. The Ways on each Side for the Pajfage of Carriages 

and Cattle. 

C. 7he Stones, by the Help 'of which People got on 


D. The military Stones, to mark the Diflances to and 

from Rome. 

E. A SeElion of the three Ways, fhewing their different 


C H A P. IV. 

Concerning the building of Bridges, and the befi 
Manner of their Situation. 

TH E Convenience of Bridges was firft contrived, be- 
caufe many Rivers, by Reafbn of their Largenefs, 
Depth, and Rapidity, are not fordable ; on which Account, 
it may be properly enough faid, that Bridges are a prin- 
cipal Part of the Way, and a Street, or Way continued 
over the Water : For which Reafbn Bridges ought to have 
the felf-fame Qualifications, that we judged neceflary in all 
other Buildings ; which are, that they mould be com- 
modious, beautiful, and lafting. They will be commodi- 
ous, when they are not raifed above the Level of the reft 
of the Way ; or, if they are raifed, when they are of eafy 
Afcent and Defcent ; and likewife when fuch a Place is 
ehofen for Building them, as fhall be raoft convenient for 
the whole Province, or the whole City, according as they 
are built within or without the Walls ; and for that Reafon 
that Place is to be made Choice of, to which there is a 
commodious PafTage from all other Parts ; I mean, that it 
be towards the Middle of the Province, or the City (as Ni~ 



cofris, Queen of Babylon, did in the Bridge which fhe 
erected over the Euphrates) and not in a Corner, where 
it can be only advantageous to a few. Bridges will be 
fine and lafting, if they are made after the Manner, and 
according to the Proportions which mail be particularly 
fpecified in this Book : But in the Choice of a Situation 
for eredling them, Care muft be taken to fix on fuch 
a Place, as mall give good Grounds to expert that the 
Bridge may be perpetual, and where it may be erected 
with lefs expence, if poflible, than any where elfe. That 
Place therefore muft be chofen where the River is moft 
mallow, and where its Bed or Bottom is even and uniform, 
that is, either of Stone, or of Gravel-ftone ; becaufe (as 
I obferved in my firft Book, where I treated of Places 
for laying Foundations) Stone and Gravel are excellent 
Foundations in Waters. Moreover, Swallows and Whirl- 
pools, and that Part of the River's Bed which is fandy, or 
has much Clay in it, muft be avoided ; becaufe, being 
conftantly moved by the Water-Floods, they frequently 
alter the Bed ; and the Foundations being thus under- 
mined, the Work muft of Neceflity fall to Ruin. But in 
Cafe the Bed of the River be altogether of Gravel or 
Sand, then the Foundations muft be made according to 
the Directions I mall lay down hereafter, when I treat 
of Stone-Bridges. Due Care ought likewife to be taken 
in the Choice of a Bridge's Situation, that it be in that 
Part of a River where its Courfe is narrower!: ; fince the 
winding and uneven Parts of the Banks are liable to 
be warned away by the Waters, whence the Bridge would 
become deftitute of Land-tyes, in fuch a Cafe, and remain 
an Ifland : Moreover, in Time of Land-Floods, the Water 
draws into thofe Turnings and Windings all the Matter 
that it wafhes from the Banks and the Fields ; which be- 
ing unable to move directly forwards, and refting there, it 
flops other Things, and turning towards the Piles, fills up 
the Arches, by which Means the Work fuffers fo very much, 
that it falls to Ruin, in Time, by the Weight of the 
Water. Make Choice therefore of fuch a Place for erecting 
a Bridge, as may be in the Middle of a Province or City, 

N n and 

i 4 o PALLED I O's 

and by Confequence commodious for all the Inhabitants : 
As alfo where the Current of the River is direct, and its 
Bed mallow, even, and uniform. But iince Bridges are 
made either of Timber or Stone, I fhall treat of both Me- 
thods; and, at the fame Time, give you the Draughts 
of feveral Bridges, both ancient and modern. 


C H A P. V. 

Of JVooden Bridges , and what Obfervations are 
to be made in the ErecJing of them, 

BRIDGES are built of Wood, either for fome one 
particular Occasion, as for all fiich Accidents as 
umally happened in War (of which Kind the moft noted 
is that which Cefar erected over the Rhine) or that they 
may be of univerfal Service. Thus we are informed that 
Hercules, after he had killed Geryon, victoriously drove 
his Herd thro' Italy, and built the firft Bridge that ever 
was upon the tyber, in that Place where Rome was after- 
wards founded ; for which Reafon it was called the Holy 
Bridge. It was fituated on that Part of the River where 
Ancus Martins had afterwards built the Sublician Bridge, 
which was likewife made all of Timber, and the leveral 
Pieces of it were fo artificially joined together, that it 
could be taken up, and carried to any Place where Ne- 
ceility mould require it ; neither were there any Nails 
or Iron in it, for any Ule. It is flill a Secret how it was 
contrived, only Authors tell us, that it was laid over large 
Pieces of Timber, which Supported others, and from thence 
was called Sublician, becaufe, in the Volfcian Language* 
fuch Pieces were called Sublices. This was the Bridge that 
Horatius Codes defended fo advantageouily for his Country, 



and fo glorioufly for himfelf. It was built near Ripa y where 
fome Remains of it are to be feen at this Day in the 
midft of the River ; for it was afterwards made of Stone 
by Emilius Lepidus> at the Time when he was Prcztor^ 
and repaired by the Emperors Tiberius and Antoninus Pius. 
Such wooden Bridges ought to be built very ftrong and 
fubftantial, and of large Pieces of Timber ftrongly joined 
together, fo as that there be no Danger of their breaking, 
either by the vaft Number of Men and Beafts that pafs 
over them, or by the Weight of Carriages and Artillery ; 
and that they be not ruinated by Floods or Inundations. 
For which Reafon, fuch as are made at the Gates of 
Cities (which are called Draw-Bridges, becaufe they can 
be drawn up or let down) are, inftead of being paved, 
generally overlaid with Rods and Plates of Iron, left they 
fhould be broken, or worn, by the Wheels of Carriages, 
or the Feet of Cattle. The Pieces of Timber (as well fiich 
as are fixed in the Water, as thofe which make the 
Length and Breadth of the Bridge) ought to be long 
and thick, in Proportion to what the Depth, the Breadth^ 
and what the rapid Current of the River fhall require : 
But fince the Particulars are innumerable, no certain or de- 
terminate Rule can be given about them ; and therefore I 
fhall prefent you with fome Draughts, and particularize 
their feveral Proportions, by which every one, as he has an 
Opportunity, or as his Genius is happy, may take his Mea- 
fures, and perform what fhall be praife- worthy. 

t¥iijwiei/ -Piece uu Iruao Jbn&r 


i 4 2 PA LLAD /O's 

C H A P. VI. 

Concerning the Bridge which Csefar ordered to 
be laid over the Rhine. 

^fULIU S CJESAR having determined to pafs 
J the Rhine (as he himfelf informs us in the fourth 
Book of his Commentaries) that the Germans might be 
apprehenfive of the Roman Power ; and concluding that 
it would neither be fafe in itfelf, nor a Thing becoming 
him, or the People of Rome, to pafs in Boats, he forth- 
with ordered a Bridge, which was a moft curious and 
difficult Piece of Workmanmip, on Account of the Large- 
nefs, Depth, and rapid Stream of the River. But after 
what Manner this Bridge was contrived, altho' he exprefly 
mentions it, is yet very difficult to determine, becaufe we 
have not an adequate Idea of the Force of fome Terms in 
his Defcription ; and various Draughts have, for that Rea- 
fon, been made of it according to Mens various Concep- 
tions. I having made mention of it likewife a little higher, 
I would not lofe this Opportunity of fetting down the * 
Defign which I formed of it in my Youth, when I firft 
read thofe Commentaries : becaufe it agrees very much, as 
I take it, with the Words of Ccefar \ and alfo becaufe 
it fucceeded to Admiration, as Experience has fhewn, in 
a Bridge which I built immediately over the Bachiglioiie 
without Vicenza. I do not, however, intend hereby to con- 
fute the Opinion of others, who were all of them very 
valuable Perfons, and highly praife-worthy, for leaving the 
Defigns of this Bridge in their Books, according to their 
Idea of it ; thus by their Labour and Ingenuity making 
it very eafy to our Underftandings. But before I give my 
Defign, I mall quote the Words of Ccefar, which are as 

* Plate II. 



follows. Rationcm igitur Pont is banc inflituit. ligna bina 
fequipedalia^ paululu?n ab imo pr<zacuta y dimenfa ad alti- 
tudinem fluminis ^ intervallo pedum duorum inter fe jungebat. 
Haze cum machinationibus immijfa in fiumen defixerat y fejlu- 
cifque adegerat ; non fubliccs 7nodo direSia ad perpendiculum, 
fed prona ac fafligiata, ut fecundum naturam fluminis pro- 
cutJtberent. His item contraria duo, ad eundem modum 
junEid) intervallo pedum quadragenum, ab inferiore parte 
contra vim dtque impetum Jluminis converfa^ flatuebat. Hcec 
utraque, infuper bipedalibus immijfis, quantum eorum tigno- 
rum junEiura trabibus> diflabat, binis utrinque Jibulis ab ex- 
trema parte diflinebantur : ^uibus difclufls^ atque in con- 
trariam partem revinclis, tanta erat operis firmitudo, at- 
que ea rerum natura, ut quo major vis aquce fefe incita- 
viffet, hoc artlius illigata tenerentur. Hcec direSia injeSfa 
materia contexebantur, ac longuriis cratibufque conflerne- 
bantur ; ac nihilfecius, fublkce, ad inferior em partem flumi- 
nis oblique adjungebantur^ quce pro ariete fubjetlce & cum 
omni opere conjun&ce, vim fluminis exciperent : ^P alice item 
fupra pontem mediocri fpacio^ ut fi arborum trunci flve na- 
ves, dejiciendi operis caufa y ejfent a barbaris mij~ce y his de- 
fenforibus earum rerum vis minueretur, neti pbnti nocerent. 
The true Senfe and Meaning whereof is, that he ordered 
a Bridge to be made after this Manner. He joined two 
Pieces of Timber together, each a Foot and a half thick, 
at two Foot Diftance, pretty fharp towards the lower 
End, and as long as the Depth of the River required. 
Having ftuck thefe Pieces in the Bottom of the River, by 
Engines, he directed them to be rammed down, not per- 
pendicularly, but inclining according to the Courle of the 
River. Over-againft thefe, in the lower Part of the River, 
and at forty Foot Diftance, he fixed two others, joined 
together after the fame Manner, leaning thefe againft the 
Stream, and Force of the River. They laid long Summers 
two Foot thick (according to their Diftance from each 
other) between thefe two double Piles, which being held 
faft by two Braces at each End, and pre/ling contrary to 
each other, fuch Was the Strength and Nature of the 

O o Work, 

i 4 4 PALLAD I O's 

Work, that as the Force of the Water was the greater, 
the fafter was all linked together. Thefe Summers were 
joined with others acrofs them, and covered with long Poles 
and Hurdles. Over and above this, there were feveral 
River-Piles, or Polls, in the lower Part of the River, which 
floping againfl the Bridge, ferved for ButtrefTes againft the 
Force of the River. Others were added in the upper 
Part of the River, at fome fmall Diftance from the Bridge, 
that in Cafe the Trunks of great Trees or Ships mould be 
let down by the Barbarians to demolifh the Works, the 
Violence of fuch Things mould be leflened by thefe De- 
fences, fo that the Bridge might not be damaged. Thus 
Cafar defcribes the Bridge which he laid over the Rhine ; 
and the following Draught feems to me very conformable 
to that Defcription. The principal Parts of it are marked 
by Letters. 

A. The two Pieces of Timber joined together, each one Foot 

and a half thick, pretty Jharp towards the lower End, 
not fixed perpendicularly in the River, but inclining 
according to the Stream, and at two Foot diftance 
from each other. 

B. The other two Pieces of 'Timber fixed in the lower Part 

of the River, over-againft the Pieces juft mentioned, 
and forty Foot diftant from them, but inclining 
againft the Stream. 

C. The Figure of one of thofe Pieces by itfelfi 

D. The Pieces of Timber, every Way two Foot thick, making 

the Breadth of the Bridge, which was forty Foot. 

E. One of thofe Pieces by itfelfi 

F. The Braces, which being open, or divided one from the 

other, and bound contrariwife (that is, one in the 
inner, and the other in the outer Part ; one above, 
and another under the Pieces two Foot thick, which 
made tfie Breadth of the Bridge) didfo corroborate 
the whoJe Work, that the greater the Violence of 
the WaW.r, or the more pondrous any Load was upon 
the Bridg ~e, the more it united, and became the firmer. 

G. Is 


G. Is one of the Braces, or Ties, hy itfelf. 

H. The Pieces of Timber which were laid the Length of the 

Bridge, and were covered with Poles a?id Hurdles. 
I. The Pofis below the Bridge, which inclining againfl, 

and joining to the whole Work, refified the Force 

of the Stream. 
K. The Pofis above the Bridge for its Defence, in Cafe the 

Enemy fhould let down the River Trees or Veffels 

to defiroy it, 
L. Two of tho/e Pieces of Timber, which being joined toge- 
ther, fiood in the River, not perpendicularly, but 

M. The Head of the Pieces which made the Breadth of 

the Bridge. 

^i| >' £* ^<f |c* ^3 gi> ^§ §-e» ^| g€* ^1 ^> ^t| I** *>e§ |^ ^§ i^ ^g g-» ^1 |fi* «§ |» <»ei ge» ^s ifi* *ei gs* ^ s^» 

C H A P. VII. 

Concerning the Bridge on the Cifmone. 

TH E Cifmone is a River, which falling from the 
Mountains that divide Italy from Germany, enters 
into the Brenta a little above Bajfano ; and forafmuch as 
it is very rapid, and the Mountaneers fend down great 
Quantities of Timber by it, a Refolution was taken to build 
a Bridge over it: Yet without fixing any Pofts in the Water, 
becaufe they were fhaken and worn by the Force of the 
Stream, and by the Stones and Trees which it constantly 
rouled down ; whence Count Giacomo Angaranno, who is. 
Lord of the Bridge, was under the Necefiity of repairing it 
every Year. * The Invention of this Bridge is well worth 
our Obfervation, in my Opinion, becaufe it may be fervice- 
able wherever thofe Difficulties occur ; and further, becaufe 
Bridges fo built are fabftantial, beautiful, and commodious: 
Substantial, becaufe all their Parts fupport each other mu- 
tually ; beautiful, becaufe the Carpenter's Work is verv or- 

* Plate III. 

namental ; 

146 PJLLAD /O's 

namental; and commodious, bccaufe they are plain, and 
in the fame Line with the reft of the Way. The River, 
over which this Bridge ftands, is a hundred Foot broad. 
This Breadth is divided into fix equal Parts, and at the 
End of each Part (except at the Banks, which are ftrength- 
ned with two folid Butments of Stone) are placed the 
Beams which conftitute the Bed and Breadth of the Bridge ; 
upon which, leaving a little Space at their Extremities, other 
Beams are laid longwife, which form the Sides of the Bridge. 
Over thefe, direct with the flrft, are difpofed the Collonelli^ 
or little Pillars on the one Side and the other ; for fo we 
generally call fuch Pieces, as, in Works of that Kind, are 
fet up # an end. Thefe little Pillars are faftened to the 
Beams (which, as I before-hinted, make the Breadth of 
the Bridge) with Iron Cramps, contrived to pals thro' a 
Hole made for that Purpofe in the Heads of the faid 
Beams, in that Part which advances beyond thofe Pieces 
which conftitute the Sides. Thefe Cramps being in the 
upper Part along the faid ftrait and plain Pillars perforated 
in divers Places, and in the under Part, near to thofe thick 
Beams which we before mentioned, and with one Hole 
moderately big, went into the Pillars, and faftened again 
below with little Bars, or Pins of Iron, made for that Pur- 
pofe. Hence the whole Work becomes, as it were, united, 
fo that the Beams, which make the Breadth of the Bridge, 
and thofe of the Sides, are, in a manner, one Piece with 
the Pillars ; which thus come to fupport the Beams which 
make the Breadth, as thefe are again fupported by the Arms 
which extend from one Pillar to another. Thus all the 
Parts mutually fupport each other, and their Nature is fuch, 
that the greater Weight there is on the Bridge, fo much 
the fafter do they clofe together, and corroborate the Work. 
All the faid Arms, and other Pieces of Timber, which 
make up the Body of the Bridge, are but a Foot in Breadth, 
and three Fourths in Thicknefs: But thofe Pieces which 
make the Bed of the Bridge, that is to fay, thofe which 
are laid long- wife, are confiderably fmaller. 

A. The 


A. Ihe Elevation of the Flank of the Bridge. 

B. The folia 7 Stone-work againfi each Bank. 

C. Ihe Heads of the Beams which go acrofs, or make the 

Breadth of the Bridge. 

D. The Beams which make the Sides. 

E. The Collonelli or Pillars, which make the Rails of the 


F. The Heads of the Cramps, with the Pins of Iron. 

G. The Braces, which bearing contrary to each other, 

fupport the whole Work. 
H. The bottom of the River. 
I. The Plan of the Bridge. 
K. The Beams which go acrofs, and advance beyond the 

Sides, near which are the Holes for the Cramps. 
L. Thefmall Beams which cover the Bed of the Bridge. 


Concerning Three other Inventions, by which 
wooden Bridges may be built without fixing 
any Pofls in the Water. 

WOODEN Bridges may be made without any 
Pofts in the Water, like that on the Cifmone, after 
three other Inventions, of which I would not omit to give 
the Defigns, becaufe they are of a very curious Contri- 
vance ; and the more fo, becaufe they will be under- 
llood with Eafe by every one who has learnt the Terms 
made ufe of in the Bridge on the Cifmone, fince thefe 
Bridges confifl likewife of Beams laid a-crofs, Pillars, 
Braces, Cramps, and Beams laid longwife, which make 
the Sides. Now Bridges, according to the firft In- 
vention *, are made after the following Manner : 
— — ' 

* Plate IV- 

P p Having 

148 PALLADI O's 

Having fortified the Banks with folid Butmenfs as far as 
is convenient, at a fmall Diftance from them, one of the 
Beams which make the Breadth of the Bridge muft be laid, 
and then the Beams which make the Sides muft be difpofed 
upon it, which, with one of their Heads, are to lie upon 
the Bank, and be faftened thereunto. Then upon thefe s 
direct with the Beam laid for the Breadth, the Collonelli^ 
or Pillars muft be plac'd, which are to be faften'd into 
the faid Beams with Iron Cramps, and fupported by the 
Braces well fix'd in the Head of the Bridge ; that is to 
fay, In the Beams which make the Sides upon the Bank. 
Afterwards leaving as much Space as fhall be left by the 
faid Beam for the Breadth, to the Bank, the other Beam 
muft be laid for the Breadth, which mail be in like man- 
ner faftened to the Beams, which are to be laid over it 
lengthwife, and to the Pillars likewife, as they will be fup- 
ported by their Braces. And thus muft it be done from 
one End to the other, or as far as it will be requifite, 
always obferving in fuch Bridges, that in the Middle of the 
Breadth there be a Pillar, the Braces whereof fhall meet 
over-againft one another,, and in the upper Part other Beams 
muft be put, which extending from one Pillar to another, 
will keep them united, and (together with the Braces plac'd 
in the Head of the Bridge) they will make a Part or 
Portion of a Circle lefs than a Semicircle. Thus making 
every Brace fupport its Pillar, and every Pillar the crofs 
Beam, and thofe that make the Sides, every Part fupports 
its own Weight. Such Bridges are large at their Heads, 
and grow narrow near the Middle of their Length. There 
is none of this Kind in Italy \ but Alexander Picheroni of 
Mirandola> in Converfation, told me that he faw one in 

A. The Upright of the Flank of the Bridge. 

B. The Head? of the Beams, which make the Breadth of it. 

C. The Beams which are laid longwife. 
D.The Pillars. 

E. The 


E. The Braces, which being faflened in the Beams tf the 

Lengthy bear up the Pillars. 

F. The Beams which bind one Pillar to the other, reach- 

ing between them, and making a Part or Portion 
of a Circle. 

G. The Butments upon each Bank. 
H. The Heads of the Iron Pins. 

I. The Bottom of the River. 

K. The Plan of the Bridge. 

L. The firft Beams, which are fupported by the Bank at 

one Head, a?td by the fir ft crofs Beam at the other. 
M. The feco?id Beams, which are fupported by the firft 

and fecond Beams of the Breadth. 
N. The third Beams, fupported by the fecond and third 

Beams of the Breadth. 
O. Crofs Beams, which make the Bed of the Bridge. 
P. j4fter thefe follow the Beams which make the Breadth, 
fupported (as I faid) by the Pillars to which they 

are made fafl, and the Pillars borne up By their 


The Invention of the following * Bridge has the upper 
Part, which bears up the whole Weight, made of a Part 
or Portion of a Circle lefs than a Semicircle; and has 
the Braces which go from one Pillar to another, made 
after fuch a manner, that they crofs each other in the 
mid ft of the Space between the Pillars. The Beams which 
make the Ground or Bottom of the Bridge, are made faft 
by Cramps to the Pillars, as in the former Invention. For 
an additional Strength two Beams may be faftened at each 
End of the Bridge, which being lb faftened in the Pilafters 
at one End of their Heads, incline with their other Head 
under the firft Pillars, becaufe luch would help much to 
fupport the Weight of the Bridge. 

A. The Upright of the Bridge in Flank. 

B. The Beams which make the Sides of the Bridge. 

* Plate V. 

C. The 

150 PA L L A D I O's 

C. The Heads of the Beams which make the Breadth. 

D. 'The Heads of the Iron Pins. 

E. The Beams, which placed under the Bridge at each 

Heady help to fupport the Weight. 

F. The Braces which ferve as Rails to the Bridge. 
G.The Pillars. 

H. The Butments againjl each Bank. 
I. The bottom of the River. 
K. The bed of the Bridge. 

Bridges of this * laft Invention, may. be built with a 
leffer or greater Arch than what is laid down by the 
Draught, according as the Quality of the Situation, and 
the Greatnefs of the River, mail require. The Height of 
the Bridge, wherein are the Rails or Braces which go from 
one Pillar to another, will be the eleventh Part of the 
Breadth of the River. All the Radii or Lines of the 
Pillars irmft anfwer to the Center, which will make the 
Work very fubftantial ; and the Pillars will fupport the 
Beams laid a-crofs and along the Bridge, as in the fore- 
going ones. The Bridges of thefe four Sorts, may be built 
as long as Occafion mall require, but all their Parts muft 
be made greater in Proportion. 

A. The Upright of the Bridge in Flank. 

B. Its bottom or bed. 

C. The Pillars. 

D. The Braces which bear up the Pillars. 

E. The Heads of the Beams, which make the Breadth of 

the Bridge. 

F. The Heads of the Iron Pins. 

G. The Buttrejfes againjl each Bank. 
H. The bottom of the River, 

• Plate VI. 




Concerning the Bridge of Baffano. 

EAR Baffano, a Place at the Foot of the Alps, 
which divide Italy from Germany, I have ordered 
the following wooden Bridge * over the Brenta, a very ra- 
pid River, which empties itfelf into the Sea near Venice, 
and which the Ancients called Meduacus ; to which (accord- 
ing to Livy in his firft Decad) Cleonymus the Spartan 
came with a Fleet before the Trojan War. This River, 
in the Place where the Bridge is erected, is One hundred 
and eighty Foot broad. This Breadth is divided into 
five equal Parts, becaufe the two Banks being fufficiently 
fortified with Beams of Oak and Larix, there were four 
Rows of Piles fixed in the River thirty-four Foot and a 
half diftant from each other. Every one of thefe Rows 
confided of eight Piles thirty Foot long,- a Foot and a half 
thick all Ways, and two Foot diftant from each other : By 
which means the whole Length of the Bridge was divided 
into five Spaces, and its Breadth was twenty-fix Foot. 
Over thefe Rows of Piles were placed Joyfts, long in pro- 
portion to the faid Breadth (thofe Joyfts lb placed are com- 
monly call'd Crofs-pieces) which being faftened into the 
Piles fixed in the River, keep them all joined and united 
together. Over thefe Crofs-pieces, direct to the faid Joyfts, 
eight other Joyfts were placed according to the Length 
of the Bridge, and extending from one Row to the other : 
And becaufe the Diftance between thefe Rows is very 
great, whence the Joyfts laid longwife might with Diffi- 
culty bear any confiderable Weight that fhould pafs over 
them ; certain Beams, which ferve as fhouldering Pieces 
to bear Part of the Weight, were placed between thefe and 
the Crofs-pieces. There were other Beams befides, which being 

PL.'te VII. 

O q made 

i 5 2 PA L L A D I O's 

made faft in thofe Piles which flood in the River, and 
inclining one towards the other, were joined to another 
Beam placed in the Middle of the faid Diftance, under 
each of the Beams of the Length. Thefe inclining 
Beams fo difpofed, reprefent a Part or Portion of a Cir- 
cle, riling the fourth of its Diameter. And thus the 
Work ftrikes the Eye agreeably as to its Form, and is 
alfo ftrong, becaufe the Beams which make the Length 
of the Bridge are double in the midft. Other Beams are 
put over thefe and acrofs them, which make the Bed or 
Bottom of the Bridge, and project their Heads a little 
beyond the reft of the Work, in Appearance like the 
Modilions of a Cornice. On the one and the other 
Side-beams of the Bridge, the Pillars which fupport the 
Roof, and make it ferve for a Gallery, are placed ; all 
which render the whole Work very commodious and or- 

A. The Upright of the Flank of the Bridge. 

B. the Rows of Piles which Jland in the Water. 

C. The Heads of the Crofs-pieces. 

D. The Beams which make the Length of the Bridge. 

over which the Heads of the foyjls may befeen that 
make the Ground of it. 

E. The Beams, which inclining towards each other, unite 

themfehes with other Beams placd in the Middle 
of the Diflance between the Rows of Piles, by which 
means the Beams come to be double in that Place. 

F. The Pillars which fupport the Roof 

G. The Elevation and SeSlion of one End of the Bridge. 
H. The Plan of the Rows of Piles, with their Spurs, 

preferving the faid Piles from being damaged by 
the Timber that floats down the River. 

I. The Scale of fxty Foot, whereby the whole Work is 

K. The Surface of the Water. 



C H A P. X. 

Concerning the Bridges, and what ought to be 
obferved in the ErecJion of them. 

EN made wooden Bridges at firft, having a Re- 
gard only to their prefent Occafions ; but when 
they began to entertain Thoughts of immortalizing their 
Names, and their Minds were enlarged by Riches, and 
furnifhed with Conveniences for more important Enter- 
prizes, they began like wife to make Stone Bridges ; which 
are more expenfive and lairing, as well as more reputa- 
ble for the Builders. In Bridges of this Kind, four Things 
are principally to be coniidered, viz. The Heads, which 
are made at the Banks ; the Piles, or Pilafters, which are 
flx'd in the River ; the Arches which thefe Mailers fup- 
port ; and the Pavement which is made over the Arches. 
The Heads of theie Bridges mould be made as firm and 
fubftantial as they poilibly can be ; becaufe they not only 
ferve to fupport the Weight of the Arches, as the other 
Pilafters do, but they likewife keep the whole Bridge to- 
gether, and the Arches from cracking or opening. They 
are made therefore where the Banks are of Stone, or at 
leaft of folid Earth : and no Banks of Earth being na- 
turally folid enough for this Occaiion, Art muft be ufed 
to make them firm and ftrong, and other Arches or 
ButtreiTes muft be' added ; that if the Water mould happen 
to deilroy the Bank, yet the Way to the Bridge might 
ftill be preferved. The Pilafters, which are to be made 
in Proportion to the Largenefs of the River, fhould always 
be even in regard to their Number ; not only becaufe 
Nature, we fee, has produced from this Number all fuch 
Things as, confifting of more than one Part, are to fupport 
any Weight, as the Feet of Men, and all other Ani- 
mals, evidently demonftrate ; but likewife, becaufe fuch 
a Compartment ftrikes the Eye more agreeably, and 


154 Pd LLADIO's 

• ■ I- 

renders the Work more fubftantial, fince the Current of tne 
River in the Middle (where it is naturally moft rapid, 
as it is moft diftant from the Banks) is thus free, and 
does not prejudice the Pilafters by perpetually making 
them. For this Reafon the Pilafters ought to be fo com- 
parted, as to fall into that Part of the River where the 
Courfe is leaft rapid. The greateft Stream of the Water 
is where fuch Things meet together as fwim upon it, 
which is moft eafily difcerned at the riflng of Floods. The 
Foundations of Bridges ought to be made at that Time 
of the Year when the Waters are loweft, which is in Au- 
tumn : And in Cafe the Bottom of the River be of Stone, 
or Gravel-Stone, or any foft Stone whatfoever, which (as I 
obferved in the firft Book) is a kind of Earth that is partly 
Stone, you have the Foundations already made, without 
any Trouble or Fatigue of digging, becaufe thefe are na- 
turally the beft Foundations. But in cafe the Bottom of 
the River be of Sand or Gravel, you muft dig therein 
till you come to folid Ground; or if that mould prove 
too laborious or impracticable, you muft dig moderately 
deep in the Sand or Gravel, and then you muft thruft in 
oaken Piles, which will reach the fblid and firm Ground, 
with the Iron by which their Points are to be armed. 
To lay the Foundation of the Pilafters, only one Part of 
the Bed of the River muft be enclofed from the Water, 
and then to build there, that, the other Part being left 
open, the Water may have its free Current ; and fo to go 
on from Part to Part. The Pilafters muft not be lels 
in Dimenlion, than the ftxth Part of the Breadth of the 
Arch ; nor, generally fpeaking, larger than a fourth. They 
mould be made of great Stones, which are to be joined 
together with Cramps and Bars of Iron, faftned with Lead, 
that they may be all of one Piece, as it were, by fuch Liga- 
ments. The Fronts of the Pilafters, or that Side which fa- 
ces the Stream, are ordinarily made angular ; that is, that 
they end in a right Angle ; and fometimes they are made 
femicircular, in order to divide or break the Water, and 
that thofe Things which are impetuoufly brought down 



the River, when they ftrike againft them, may be fhov'd 
from the Pilafters, and pafs thro' the Middle of the Arch. 
The Arches too mould be made very ftrong and fubftantiil, 
and with great Stones well united together, the better to 
reiift the conftant Palling of Carriages, or any other Weight 
that fhall happen to come over them. Thofe Arches are 
the ftrongeft which confift of a Semicircle, becaufe they 
entirely reft upon the Pilafters, and never prefs upon each 
other : But if by the Nature of the Situation, and the 
Difpofition of the Pilafters, a perfect Semicircle fhould not 
be commodious, as rendering the Afcent and Defcent diffi- 
cult, a leffer Section muft then be made ufe of, and fuch 
Arches muft be made as rife only the third Part of their 
Diameter ; and, in this Cafe, the Foundations muft be made 
extreamly ftrong upon the Banks. The Pavement of thefe 
Bridges Ought to be made exactly like thofe of Ways and 
Streets, whereof we have already treated. And thus, having 
feen what is to be confidered in general relating to building 
Stone Bridges, we fhall, in the next Place, proceed to par- 
ticular Draughts and Defigns* 

«K^«^ && &<&■ •€»# ♦«&• 4»«gB> ■#►♦ •*§»«&• ♦♦ •*§►♦ && -9§n&> $§»«!*• && &&&- 

C H A P. XI. 

Concerning fome certain celebrated Bridges ere Bed 
by the Ancients^ with the Draughts of that 
of Ariminuiui. 

ABUNDANCE of Bridges were erected by the 
Ancients in feveral Places \ but particularly in Italy., 
and on the Tyher ; whereof fome are at this Day intire, 
and others have fome fmall Remains only left, to preferve 
their Memory. Thofe which are at prefent entire on 
the lyber y are that of the Caftle of St. Angelo, called, in 
former Times, the Elian Bridge^ from the Emperor Elius 
Adrianusy who erected in this Place his own Monument : 

Rr The 

x 5 6 PJLLADIO's 

The Fabrician Bridge, erected by Fabricius, now called 
the Four-headed Bridge, or Ponto quattro capi, from the 
four Heads of Janus, or of four "Termini, which are 
placed on the left Hand of this Bridge, whereby the 
Ifland of the Tyber is joined to the City : The Cejlian 
Bridge, now called St. Bartholomew s Bridge, which, from 
the other Side of the Ifland, paffes to Tran/levere, or over 
Tyber : The Bridge called Senatorio from the Senators, and 
Palatino from the adjacent Hill, made of ruftick Work, 
and now called St. Marys Bridge. But the Bridges, where- 
of the ancient Remains are only to be feen in the Tyber, 
are the Sublician Bridge, called likewife the Lepidan Bridge, 
from Emilius Lepidus, who made it of Stone, tho' it was 
firft made of Wood, and was built near Ripa : The Trium- 
phal Bridge, whofe Pilafters are ftill to be feen over- 
againfl the Church of the Holy Ghojl : The Janiculan 
Bridge, fo named from its being adjacent to Mount Ja- 
niculus, which, becaufe Pope Sixtus IV. repaired it, is now 
called Ponte Sijlo : And the Milvian Bridge, now called 
Ponte molle, in the Flaminian Way, not two Miles diftant 
from Rome, and retaining the Foundations only of its an- 
cient Form. It is reported to have been erected in the 
Time of Sylla, by Marcus Scaurus the Cenfor. There 
are likewife the Remains of a Bridge to be feen, erected 
by Augujlus, of ruftick Work, upon the Vera, a moft rapid 
River near Narmi : And another likewife of the fame Work 
upon the Metaurus, at Calgi in Umbria, with particular 
Counterworks at each End of it upon the Banks, which 
make it exceeding ftrong, and fupport the Road. But 
among all the celebrated Bridges, that is recorded as a 
Miracle, which Caligula built from Puteoli to Baice, in 
the midft of the Sea, almoft three Miles in Length ; and 
'tis faid that he expended all the Revenues of the Empire 
upon it. Extraordinary great, and moft deferving Admi- 
ration, was that Bridge built over the Danube in Tran- 
fihania, and on which were infcribed thefe Words ; 




Bridge was afterwards broke down and demolished by 
Adrian, to prevent the Barbarians from coming over it 
to plunder the Roman Provinces; and its Pilafters are 
ftill to be feen in the Middle of the River. But fince, 
of. all the Bridges that I have here mentioned, that appears 
to me to be the moil beautiful, and the moft worthy of 
Obfervation (not only for the Strength, but the Com- 
partment of it) which was erected at Ariminum, a City 
of the Flaminian Tribe, and, I believe, by Auguflus Ccefar, 
I have given the following * Draughts of it. It is di- 
vided into five Arches, the three middlemoft whereof are 
equal, confining of 25 Feet in Breadth; and the two 
next the Banks are lefs, confining only of 20 Feet. All 
thefe Arches confift of a Semicircle, and the Depth of their 
Archivolte is a tenth Part of the Light or Void of the 
greater, and an eighth Part of a Light of the lefTer ones. 
The Pilafters, as to their Thicknefs, are a little more than 
the Half of the Light of the greater Arches. The Angle 
of the Spurs, which cut the Water, is a right Angle : 
This, as I obferve, the Ancients follow'd in building all 
their Bridges, as being ftronger than the Acute Angle, and 
for that Reafon the Acute Angle is lefs expofed to be 
thrown down and deftroyed by Trees, or any other Matter, 
that rolls down with the Stream. On the Sides of the Bridge 
there are fome Niches, wherein there muft formerly have 
been fbme Statues, directly over the Pilafters. There is 
a Cornice over thefe Niches, the Length of the whole 
Bridge, which, altho' it is plain, adds neverthelefs a moft 
agreeable Decoration to the Work. 

A. The Cornice, which is over the Niches, the whole Length 

of the Bridge. 

B. The Surface of the Water. 

C. The Bottom of the River. 

D. A Scale of thirty Feet, whereby the whole TVork is 


* Plate VIII. 


158 PALLAD I O's 


Concerning the Bridge of Vicenza, which is over 

the Bacchiglione. 

TW O Rivers run thro' Vicenza^ one whereof is called 
the Bacchiglione^ and the other the Rerone. This 
laft enters into the firft juft without the City, and fo lofes 
its Name immediately. There are two ancient Bridges 
built over thefe Rivers: The Pilafters and one Arch of 
that which is over the Bacchiglione are frill entire, and 
to be feen near the Church of St. Mary of the Angels : 
The reft is all modern Work. This * Bridge is divided 
into three Arches ; the middlemoft whereof is thirty Feet 
broad, the other two are twenty two Feet and a half 
each ; which were fo ordered and difpofed, that the River 
might enjoy its Current the freer in the Middle. The 
Pilafters, as to their Thicknefs, are the fifth Part of the 
Light of the lefter Arches, and the fixth of the greater. 
The Arches rife from their Impoft, the third Part of the 
Diameter of the Void of the Arch. Their Archivolte has 
in Depth the ninth Part of the fmaller Arches, and the 
twelfth Part of that in the Middle, and they are wrought 
after the manner of the Architrave. In the uppermoft 
Part of the Pilafters, under the Impoft of the Arches, 
certain Stones project, or jut forth, which, in the Erection 
of the Bridge, ferved to fupport the Beams, over which 
was the Centering of the Arches : And thus the Danger 
of any Flood's taking away the Pofts (to the Deftruc- 
tion of the Work) which muft have been otherwife fixed 
in the River for making the faid Centering, was affuredly 

* Plate IX. 

A. The 


A. The Parapet of the Bridge. 

B. The Stones which project from the Top of the Pilajlers, 

andferve tofupport the Centers of the Arches. 

C. The Architrave round the Arches. 

D. The Heads of the Bridge. 

E. The Architrave round the Arches at large. 

F. Scale of thirty Feet> whereby this Work is meafured. 


Concerning a Stone Bridge of my own Invention, 

VE RY beautiful, in my Opinion, is the following 
Defigti, and perfectly well fuited to the Place where 
it was to be erected, which was in the midft of one of 
the largeft and moft famous Cities 6f Italy, the Metropolis of 
many others, and trading almoft to all Parts of the ha- 
bitable World. The River is very large, and the Bridge was 
to have been ere&ed on the very Spot where the Merchants 
met to tranfact and treat of their Affairs i For which Rea- 
fon, not only to preferve the Grandeur and Dignity of the 
faid City, but very confiderably to advance the Revenues 
of the fame, I defigried the Bridge fo broad as to build 
three Streets upon it; that in the Middle, fpacious anH 
beautiful, and the other two on the Sides fomewhat lefs. 
On both Sides of each of thofe Streets I contrived Shops, 
whereof thus there would have been fix Rows. Moreover, 
there were Galleries intended to be made at each Head 
of the Bridge, and in the Middle, over the great Arch, 
in which the Merchants Were to keep their Exchange, 
which would have been no lefs ornamental than conve- 

* Phte X. 

S f nient. 

1 6c PALLADI m 

nient. The Accefs to the Galleries at the Heads mould 
have been by (bme few Steps, and even with thefe would 
be the Ground, or Pavement of the reft of the Bridge. It 
ought not to be thought a new or fii'fprifing Thing, that 
Galleries mould be made over Bridges,fince the Elian Bridge 
at Rome, of which we have made mention in its proper 
Place, was heretofore all covered with Galleries, jiaving 
Columns of Brafs, with Statues, and other curious Deco- 
rations : Befides, upon this Occafion, it was almoft neceffary 
to make Galleries, for the Reafons already mentioned. 
The very fame Order, and the fame Rules, are obferved 
in the Proportions of the Pilafters and the Arches, as have 
been obferved in the other Bridges before-mentioned, and 
every one may readily find them himfelf. 

The Parts of the Plan. 

A. The beautiful and fpacious Street made in the midft of 

the Breadth of the Bridge. 

B. 'The leffer Streets on the Sides. 

C. The Shops on the Outjide over the River. 

D. The Galleries at each Head of the Bridge. 

E. The Steps which lead up to thofe Galleries. 

F. The Galleries in the middle, over the large Arch of the 


The Parts of the Elevation anfwer to thofe of the Plan, 
and for- that Reafon are eafily underftood without any 
farther Iiluflration. 

G. The Elevation of the Shops fronting all the three 

Ways A, B, B. 
H. The Lines of the Water s Surface. 
I. A ProfpeSl of the Ways leading to the fmall Stairs 

of the Bridge. . 




Concerning another Bridge of my own Invention, 

HAVING been follicited by fome Gentlemen to 
give them my Opinion about a Bridge which they 
had Thoughts of building with Stone, in order to oblige 
them I made the following Draught *. The River, where 
the Bridge was to be erected, is one hundred and eighty 
Feet broad. I divided this whole Breadth into three 
Arches, made that in the Middle fixty Feet broad, and the 
other two, forty-eight each. The Pilafters which fupport 
the Arches were twelve Feet thick, and by that means were 
a fifth Part of the middle Arch, and a fourth of the lefTer 
Ones. I fomewhat varied from the common Meafures of 
Pilafters, on this Occafion, making them very thick, and 
to project very far from the Body of the Bridge^ in order 
that they might refill the Violence of the River, which 
is very impetuous, and alfo oppofe the Stones and Trees 
which fall down with the Stream. The Arches were 
to have been a Part or Portion of a Circle lefs than a 
Semicircle, that the Afcent and Defcent of the Bridge 
might be plain and eafy. I made the Archivolte of the 
Arches a feventeenth Part of the Void of the middle Arch, 
and a fourteenth Part of the other two. This Bridge 
might have been embellifbed with Niches over the Pi- 
lafters, and with Statues; as there might have been a 
Cornice the whole Length of it on each Side, which the 
Ancients, 'tis well known, lometimes practifed, as in the 
Bridge of Ariminum built by Augufius Cajar, the Draughts' 
whereof are given above. 

* Plate XI. 

A. The 

i6a PALLAD ZO's 

A. The Superficies of the Water. 

B. The Bottom of the River. 

C. The Stones, 'which projecl for the Ufes above-?nen- 


D. The Scale of Forty Feet, whereby the whole Work is 



Concerning the Bridge of Vicenza, which is over 

the Rerone. 

THE other ancient * Bridge, which, as I have be- 
fore obferved, is in Vicenza over the Rerone, is by 
the common People called, II ponte belle Beccarie, or the 
Butchers Bridge, becaufe it is adjacent to the greateft 
Shambles of the City. This Bridge is ftill entire, and 
varies but little from that on the Bacchiglione, being di- 
vided into three Arches, and the middlemoft is larger 
than either of the other two. All thefe Arches are a Part or 
Portion of a Circle lefs than a Semicircle, and have no 
Decorations at all. The leffer ones rife above their Impofl 
the third of their Breadth, and that which is in the Middle 
a little lefs. The Pilafters are the fifth Part of the Dia- 
meter of the leffer Arches in Thicknefs, and have, at their 
Extremes, under the Imports of the Arches, the Stones 
which project for the Ufes before-mentioned. Both the 
one and the other of thefe Bridges are compofed of 
Cofloza Stone, which is a foft Stone, and is fawed like 
Wood. There are four in Padua of the lame Propor- 
tions with thefe two at Vicenza, three of which have 
only three Arches ; and they are, the Bridge of Altina, 

- — - ■ • - * ■ ■ - 

* Plate XII. 



tfhat of St. Laurence, and that called Ponte-corvo, or Raven- 
Bridge : The fourth, called Ponte-molino, or Mill-Bridge, 
has five Arches. It is to be obferved, that in all thefe 
Bridges the greateft Care has been taken to join the Stones 
well, which, as I have frequently advifed, is indifpenfibly 
requifite in all Ere&ions. 

A. The Side of the Bridge. 

B. Stones that projeSl to fupport the Centers of the 

Ci Pilaflers or Buttreffes at each Bank. 
D. Scale of forty Feet, whereby this Bridge was mea- 


Concerning the Principal Squares, Markets 9 and 
open Places of a City, and the Structures or 
Buildings which ought to be made about them, 

BESIDES the Streets, of which we have already 
treated, it is likewife neceffary that there be greater 
or leffer Squares, or open Places, diftributed in Cities in 
Proportion to their Extent, where People may meet to- 
gether to tranfadt and treat about their neceffary Affairs : 
But as fuch Places may be fet apart for various Pur- 
pofes, fo a proper and commodious Situation ought to be 
affigned them. Thefe great and open Places in a City, 
befides the Conveniencies of walking, difcourfing, and 
contracting Bargains, are very ornamental ; as when there 
is a beautiful and fpacious Place at the Head of a 
Street, from whence you have the Profpect of fome cu- 
rious Edifice, and particularly of fbme Church. As 

Tt it 

1 64 PA L LA D I O's 

it would be very advantageous to have feveral of thefe open 
Places in divers Parts of the City, fo it is by far more 
requifke, and more honourable and magnificent, to have 
one principal Square, which may juftly deferve the Title 
of a publick Place. Thefe principal Squares ought to be 
proportioned to the Number of the People, that they may 
not be too fmall for their various Occafions, nor be too 
great, left the Place may feem uninhabited. In Sea-port 
Towns, or Cities, they ought to be made as near the Ha- 
ven as conveniently can be ; and in Inland Cities, about 
the Middle, that the Citizens may, with Eafe and Con- 
venience, refort to them from all Parts. They ought to 
be defigned according to the Manner of the Ancients, 
There mould be large Porticos, or Piazzas, round thefe 
Squares, in Proportion to the Height of their Columns j 
the Ufe whereof is to fhelter People from the Rain, Snow, 
and all other Injuries of the Weather : But all fuch Edi- 
fices as are built round them, ought not be (in the 
, Opinion of Albertt) higher than the third Part of the 
Breadth of the Square, nor lower than the fixth. To the 
Porticos, or Piazzas, there muft be an Afcent by Steps, 
which are to rife the fifth Part of the Height of the Co- 
lumns. Squares receive an extraordinary Beauty by having 
Arches erected at the Entrance into them ; that is, at the 
Head of thofe Streets which go out of them. How fuch 
Arches mould be erected, on what Account the Ancients 
made them, and from whence they were called Triumphal, 
I mall fhew at large in my Book of Arches, where the 
Draughts of many of them will be met with ; and whereby 
great Light will be imparted to fuch as would at this 
time, or hereafter, build fuch Arches in Commemoration 
of Princes, Kings, and Emperors. But to return to the 
/ principal Squares : To thefe the Prince's Palace, or that for 

the AfTembly of the States, according as the Country is 
either a Monarchy, or a Republick, ought always to be 
joined. The Exchequer, or the Publick Treafury, where 
the Money and other valuable Effects of the Publick are de- 
pofited, and the Prifons, ought to join them likewife. Thefe 



latter were heretofore of three Sorts ; one for thofe who 
were diffolute and debauched, who were confined there 
till they were reformed, and which are now appropriated 
or affigned to Fools or Mad-men : Another was for Debt- 
ors, which is alfo ufed amongft us ; and the third was for 
Rebels, and other abandoned Perlbns, either already con- 
demned, or fhortly to be fo. ^Thefe three Sorts are fufficient, 
lince all the Mifdemeanours of Mankind proceed either 
from Debauchery, Obflinacy, or Perverfenefs. The Exche- 
quer and the Prifons ought to be fituated in the molt 
fecure Places, furrounded with lofty Walls, and guarded 
agairtft the Invafion or Treachery of the factious Inhabitants. 
The Prifons particularly ought to be built in the mofl healthy 
and convenient Places, becaufe they are appointed for the 
fafe Cuftody, and not for the Punifhment or Execution of 
any Kind of Delinquents : For which Reafon the Walls of 
them fhould be made in the Middle with great Stones, join- 
ed together with Cramps and Faftenings of Iron or Copper, 
and then be lined on both Sides with Bricks ; for thereby 
the Moifture and Damp of the Stones will not render 
the Prifon unhealthy, neither will the Walls lofe any Part 
of their Strength. PalTages ought to be made all round them, 
and the Keepers Apartments be near at Hand ; that if 
the Prifoners form any Stratagem to make their Efcape, it 
may be quickly difcovered. The Senate and Council-Houfe, 
where Affairs of State are tranfacted, as well as the Ex- 
chequer and the Prifons, fhould join the great Square. 
The Senate-Houfe ought to be large in Proportion to the 
Dignity and Number of the Inhabitants : The Height muft 
exceed the Breadth of it by near one half, in cafe it be 
fquare ; but if it be oblong, it muft be half as high to the 
Cieling, as the Length and the Breadth put together. There 
ought to be large Cornices made in the Middle of the 
Height, which fhould project from the Walls, in order that 
the Voice of fuch as debate may not be loll and diffus'd 
in the Height of the Room, but may the better reach the 
Ears of the Auditors, by being reflected back. On that Side 
of the Square which is towards the warraeft Region of 


166 PA L LA D I O's 

Heaven, fhould be made the Bajilica, or the Edifice for 
the Courts of Juftice, to which a great Part of the Peo- 
ple, particularly People of Bufinefs, daily refort : But I mail 
treat of the Baji/ica's, after I have fhewn how the Greeks 
and the Romans made their Squares, and given the Draughts 
of each of them. 


Concerning the Agora's, or Squares of the 


TH E Greeks (as Vitruvius informs us in the firft 
Chapter of his fifth Book) made the * open Places 
in their Cities of a fquare Form> furrounding them with 
fpacious and double Porticos, and thick Columns, viz. 
diftant from each other a Diameter and a half of a Co- 
lumn, or at moft two Diameters. Thefe Porticos or 
Piazzas were as broad as the Columns were long ; fo 
that by their being double, the Place for walking was as 
fpacious as twice the Length of a Column, which made 
it very commodious. Over the firft Columns (which in 
my Opinion, muft have been Corinthian^ as Regard was 
had to the Place where they flood) were other Columns, 
a fourth Part lefs than the firft. Thefe had under them 
a Corridor of fuch Height as was moft convenient, be- 
caufe thefe upper Porticos were appointed likewife for 
walking and difcourfing, and for Perfons to ftand com- 
modioufty therein to be -Spectators of any Shews that 
might be exhibited in the Square, either out of Pleafure 
or Devotion. All thefe Porticos muft of Courfe have 
been embellifhed with Niches and Statues, fince the 

* Plate XIII. 



Greeks us'd to be highly delighted with fuch fort of Or- 
naments. Near to thefe Squares were the Baflica, the 
Senate-Houfe, the Prifons, and all the other Places above- 
mentioned, tho' Vitruvius, when he inftrucls us iri what 
Manner they ought to be built, does not nominate that 
Place for them. Moreover, becaufe (as he tells us in the 
Vllth Chapter of his firft Book) the Ancients us'd to build 
the Temples devoted to Mercury and Ifis, as Gods who 
prefided over Commerce and Merchandize ; and that in 
Pola, a City of IJlria, there are two Temples to be feen 
upon the great Square, exactly like one another in Form, 
Bulk, and Decorations : I have inferted them on each Side 
of the Bafelica, in the following Draught. Here the Plan 
and the Elevation follow ; of which, together with all their 
diftincT: Members, you'll have a more diftind Account in 
my Book of Temples. 

A. The Agora, Square, or great Place, 

B. The double Porticos. 

C. The Bafilica, where the Judges had their Tribunals. 

D. The Temple of Ifis. 

E. The Temple of Mercury. 

F. The Senate-Houfe. 

G. A Portico andfmall Court before the Treafury. 
H. A Portico andfmall Court before the Prifons. 

I. The Gate of the Hall leading into the Senate-Houfe, 
K. Parages round the Senate-Houfe, from which People 

pafsd to the Porticos of the Square. 
L. The Turnings or Corners of the Porticos of the Square. 
M.7he Turning of the Porticos on the Injide. 
N. The Plan of the Walls of the little Courts of the 

O. Parages round the Exchequer and the Senate-Houfe. 
The Elevation that is on the Back of the Plan *, is of 

one Part of the Square. 
Q^Half of the Breadth of the Portico towards the 


* Plate XIV 


168 PALLAD1 O's 


Concerning the Forums, Squares^ or Publick 
Market-Places of the Romans. 

F" "^ H E Romans, and the other Italians (as Vitruvius 
J^_ affures us in the Place above quoted) deviating 
from the Cuflom of the Greeks, made their * Squares fome- 
vyhat longer than they were broad ; fo that dividing the 
Length into three Parts, two made the Breadth ; becaufe 
the Gladiators exerting their Skill publickly in thefe Places, 
this Form was more commodious for their purpofe than a 
perfect Square : For which Reafon likewife, the Inter- 
Columnation af the Porticos that went round the Square, 
was made of two Diameters and a quarter of a Column, 
or even of two Diameters, that the Sight of the People 
might not be intercepted by the Thicknefs of the Columns. 
The Porticos were as broad as. the Columns were high, 
and under them were the Bankers and Goldfmiths Shops. 
The upper Columns were a fourth Part lefs than the 
under ones ; becaufe, as I have informed you in my firft. 
Book, all Pieces below, confidenng the Weight that they 
bear, fhould be ftronger than thofe above. In the Part 
fronting the warmeft Region of Heaven, were the Bajilica, 
which I have mark'd in the Draughts of thofe Squares in the 
Length of two Squares, and the Porticos round the Iniide 
are a third Part of the middle Space in Breadth. Their 
Columns are as long as the Porticos are large, and may 
be made of what Order you pleafe. On that Side which 
fronts the North, ftands the Senate-Houfe, a Square and 
a half in Length. The Height of it is half its Breadth 
and Length put together. This Curia, or Senate Houle 
(as I obferved above) was the Place where the Senate 
aiTembled to confult about State Affairs. 

* Plate XV. 

A. Winding 


A. Winding Stairs, open in the Middle, and leading to 

the upper Parts. 

B. A Pajfage leading to the Porticos of the Square. 

C. Porticos, and a little Court on one Side the Bafilica, 

D. E. Places for the Bankers, and the mofi reputable 


F. Places for the Secretaries, where the Deliberations and 

Refolutions of the Senate were repofited. 

G. The Prifons. 

H. The Turnings or Corners of the Porticos of the Square, 
I. The Entrance into the Bafilica, or Courts of Juflice, 

by one Side. 
K. The Turning of the Porticos of the little Courts on one 

Side of the Bafilica. 
The Elevation that follows §, on a larger Scale, is a 

Part of the Porticos of the Square. 
L. Half of the Breadth of the Portico towards the 



Concerning the ancient Bafilicas, or Courts of 


THESE Places * were heretofore called Baflicas, 
where the Judges attended to adminifter Juftice 
under Shelter, and where fometimes Affairs of the laft 
Importance were tranfa&ed : Whence we read, that the 
Tribunes of the People caus'd a Column, that interrupted 
their Benches, to be taken away from the Bafilica Por- 
tia which was at Rome, near the Temple of Romulus 
and Remus, and is now the Church of St. Cofmus and 

§ Plate XVI. * Plate XVII. 


i 7 o P A L L A D I O's 

Damianus. Of all the ancient Bafilicas, that was the 
moft famous, and looked upon as one of the Wonders of 
the City, which Paulus Emilius built between the Tem- 
ples of Saturn and Fauflina ; and upon which he ex- 
pended fifteen hundred Talents beftowed on him by Cazfar, 
which amount, according to the neareft Computation, to 
nine hundred thoufand Crowns. Bafilicas then ought to be 
joined to the Square, as I have obferved in thofe already 
mentioned, both which flood in the Roman Forum, and 
fac'd the warmeft Region of Heaven, in order that the 
Men of Bufmefs, and fuch as were at Law, might meet to- 
gether in the Spring time, and continue there without any 
Inconvenience. In Breadth they ought to be no lefs than 
a third Part of their Length, nor more than the half; I 
mean, fuppofing the Situation of the Place will permit it, 
and that you are not obliged to alter the Meafures of your 
Compartment. There is not the leaft Footfteps remaining 
of any fuch ancient Edifice ; for which Reafon, purfuing 
the Directions of Vitruvius about them in the Place be- 
fore mentioned, I have made the following Draughts *, 
in which the Bafilica in the middle Part of it, that is, 
within the Columns, is in Length two Squares. The Porticos 
which are on the Sides, and at the End of the Entrance, 
are a third Part of the middle Space in Breadth. The Co- 
lumns are as high as the Porticos are large, and you 
may make them of what Order you think moft proper. I 
have made no Portico in the End oppofite to the Entry, 
becaufe it would be better, in my Opinion, to have there 
a great Nich, made of a Part or Portion of a Circle lefs 
than a Semicircle, where might ftand the Prators Tribu- 
nal, or that of the Judges, if there be a confiderable 
Number ; as there mould be an Afcent likewife to it by 
Steps, in order to make it more grand and majeftic. I do 
not deny, however, but that the Porticos might reach 
quite round, as I have made them in the Defigns of fuch 
Bafilicas as are in the Draughts of the Squares. You go 

Plate XVIII. 



along the Porticos to the Stairs, which are on each Side 
of the faid Nich, and lead you to the upper Porticos, 
The Columns of thefe upper ones are a fourth Part lefs 
than thofe below. The Corridor which is between the 
upper and the lower Columns, ought to be in Height a 
fourth Part lefs than the Length of the upper Columns ; 
that fuch as are tranfacting their Affairs in the upper 
Porticos, may not be feen by thofe who are bufy in the 
Bafilica below. Vitruvius made a Bajilica at Fano, with 
other Compartments, which, according to the Proportions 
which he gives of it in the Place above quoted, muft, 
doubtlefs, have been a Fabrick of extraordinary Beauty and 
Magnificence. I had inferted the Draughts of it here, 
but fince the moll: Reverend Barbaro has, with the great- 
eft Induftry and Exactnefs, done it in his Vitruvius^ I 
thought it altogether needlefs. 

A. The Entrance into the Bafilica* 

B. The Nich for the Tribunal over againjl the Entry a 

C. The Porticos round the Bafilica. 

D. The Stairs which lead to the upper FartSi. 

E. Neceffary Houfes. 

Of the following * Defigns at large, the eighteenth 
Plate reprefents the Infide of the Colonade towards the 
Bafilica^ and the nineteenth iheWs half of the Nich for 
the Tribunal over-againft the Entrance of the Bajilica. 

* Plate XVIII. and XIX. 

/ X x -CHAP. 

172 PALLADlOh 


Concerning the Bafilica's of our own Times^ or 
modern Courts of yuflice. 

AS the Ancients * made their Bafilkds fo, as that in 
the Spring and Summer People might meet together 
there, to treat of and tranfact their Affairs, and to carry 
on their Law-Suits ; fo, in our limes, every City, as well 
in Italy as out of it, built certain fpacious Publick Halls, 
which may be properly and juftly term'd Bafilicas, be- 
caufe the Residence of the Supreme Magistrates is near to 
them, whence they come to be Part thereof; and the 
proper etymological Senfe of this Word Bafilica is, a Royal 
Houfe,- not only for the Reafon now given, but becaufe 
the Judges attend there to adminifter Juftice to the Peo- 
ple. The Bafilicds of our Times differ herein from the 
ancient Bajilicas, that the latter were on the Ground, or 
even with the Surface of it, whereas the former are built 
over Arches, in which Shops are placed for feveral Arts, 
and the Reception of Merchants Wares ; the Prifons being 
like wife there, and other Places for the Emolument of the 
Publick. Moreover, the ancient Bajtlicds had their Porti- 
cos on the Infide, as our Draughts Sufficiently demonh:rate ; 
and the modern ones, on the contrary, have either no 
Porticos at all, or elfe they are on the Outfide towards 
the Square, or open Place. Among thefe modern Halls, 
there is a very remarkable one in Padua (a City valued 
for its Antiquity, and famous all over the whole World 
for its University) in which the Gentlemen affemble daily, 
this Place ferving them for a covered Square to walk in. 
The Citizens of Brejcia^ who are magnificent in all their 

* Plate XX, 



Undertakings, have lately ereded one of thofe Halls, which 
is juftly admired for its Grandeur and Decorations. There 
is another of them in Ficenza^ of which only I have 
given you the Draughts, becaufe the Porticos around it 
are of my own Invention : And, I don't queftion but that 
this Fabrick may be compared to the ancient Edifices, 
and be looked upon as one of the moft noble and beau- 
tiful Buildings ereded fmce the Time of the Ancients ; 
as well on Account of its Largenefs and Decorations, as 
of its Matter, which is all hewn Stone, hard to the laft 
Degree, and joined and bound together with the utmoft 
Care. There is no need I mould mention particularly the 
Proportions of every Part here, fince they are all marked 
in their Places on the Draughts. 

Part of the Plan * and of the Elevation of the Bafilica 
at large. 



Concerning the Paleftras and Xyfti, or Places of 
Publick Exercife y amongft the Greeks. 


AV ING treated of Ways, Streets, Bridges, and 
Squares, I mall difcourfe of certain Grecian Edifi- 
ces, to which Men reforted for the Exercife of their Bo- 
dies j and 'tis highly probable, that when the Cities of 
Greece were governed after a Republican Manner, there 
was one of thefe Buildings in each of thofe Cities ; where- 
in the Youth, befides learning the Sciences, by exercising 

* Plats XXI, 


i 7 4 PJLLADIO's 

their Bodies in a military Form ( as, in knowing their 
Ranks, throwing the Bar or Javelin, Wreftling, handling 
their Arms, fwimming with Burdens on their Backs, and 
the like ) became accuftomed to the Toils and Accidents 
of War ; by means whereof, tho' but a fmall Body, they 
could afterwards, with their Valour and Military Difci- 
pline, rout numerous Armies. The Romans, in Imitation 
of the Greeks, had their Campus Martins, or Field of 
Mars, wherein their Youth exercifed themfelves in the 
like Military Atchievements, from whence proceeded very 
wonderful Effects, and many a glorious Conqueft. Ccefar, 
in his Commentaries, allures us, that being attack'd on a 
fudden by the Nervii, and perceiving that the feventh 
and twelfth Legions were fo crowded, that they were not 
able to fight, he commanded them to fet themfelves in 
Array at a greater Diftance, and fo as that the one 
mould flank the other, that by that Means they might 
have Room to handle their Arms, and not be hemmed 
in by their Enemies ; which being with all imaginable 
Dexterity and Speed performed by the Soldiers, gained 
the Victory for their General, and purchafed for them- 
felves the immortal Reputation of being valiant and 
well-difciplined Men, fince, in the Heat of the Engage- 
ment, when every thing was in the utmoft Danger and 
Confufion, they executed that which many, in our Times, 
think very difficult to perform, even when no Enemy is 
near, and when there is Convenience both of Time and 
Place. The Greek and Roman Hiftories abound with fuch 
o-lorious Atchievements, whereof the principal Caufe, no 
doubt, confifted in the conftant Exercife of their Youth. 
From thefe Exercifes thofe Places (which the Greeks erect- 
ed, according to Vitruviuss Account in the eleventh 
Chapter of his fifth Book) were called Palejirce and Xyjii, 
and they were thus comparted. Firft, they traced or 
meamred out a fquare Piece of Ground, of the Compafs 
of two Stades, that is, of two hundred and fifty Paces ; 
and on three Sides thereof they made fingle Porticos, 
under which were fine fpacious Rooms, wherein Philofo- 



phers and other Men of Literature argued, and difputed 
one with another. On the fourth Side, which looked towards 
the South, the Porticos were made double, that the Rain 
driven by the Wind in the Spring might not beat into 
the inner Parts, and that the Sun in the Summer might 
be kept at further Diftance. In the Middle of this Por- 
tico was a fpacious Hall, a Square and a half long, where 
the Boys were inftructed, on the Right-fide whereof was 
the Place where the Girls were alfo educated ; and be- 
hind it the Place where the Wreftlers covered themfelves 
with Duft. Further on was the Room for warning in 
cold Water, which is now called a Cold-Bath, and hap- 
pens to be in the Turning or Corner of the Portico. 
On the Left-fide of the Hall for the Youth, was the 
Place where the Wreftlers anointed their Bodies to make 
them more active and vigorous ; adjoining to which was 
a cold Room, where they ftripp'd themfelves naked ; and 
further on, a moderate warm Room, with a Fire in it, 
from whence they entered into the hot Stove. This Room 
had the Laconicu7n^ or Sweating-Place, on the one Side 
of it, and the Room for bathing in cold Water on the 
other : For thus People would imitate Nature, which gra- 
dually proceeds from extreme Cold to extreme Heat ; and 
for that Reafon they would not go at once from the 
cold Room into the hot, but by the Medium or Inter- 
val of the moderately warm one. On the Out-fide of 
all thefe Places were three Porticos, one on the Side. of 
the Entrance (which may either be made Eaft or Weft) 
and the other two were on the Right and Left, the one to- 
wards the North, and the other towards the South. The 
Portico towards the North was double, and as large as 
its Columns were long : That towards the South was 
fingle, but confiderably broader than any of thofe before 
mentioned, and was fc> divided, as that leaving ten Feet 
on the Side of the Columns and of the Wall ( which 
Space is by Vitruvius called the Margin or Border) they 
defcended by two Steps, fix Feet broad, into a plain 
Place about twelve Feet, or rather more, wherein the 

Y y Wreftlers 

x 7 6 P A L L A D I O's 

Wrefllers and others might exercife their Bodies under 
Cover in the Spring, without being hindered by fuch as 
were Spectators in the Porticos ; who likewife faw better, 
on Account of the Largenefs of the Place where the 
Wrefllers were. The Portico was properly called the Xyflus. 
The Xyfli were fo ordered, that between the Porticos 
there mould be Woods and Plantations, and the Ways 
between the Trees mould be paved with Mofaick Work. 
Near the Xyjius and the double Portico were traced 
the open Places for walking, which they called Peridromi- 
des, wherein the Athletes in the Spring Time, when the 
Weather was fair, might exercife themfelves. The Sta- 
dium was on one Side of this Building, and was a very 
commodious Place, from whence the People might fee 
the Combatants and other Performers. From thefe Sorts of 
Fabricks the Example was taken by the Roman Empe- 
rors, who built the Thermae^ or publick Baths, to amufe 
and divert the People ; thefe being Places to which Per- 
sons reforted for their Pleafure, as well as to waili them- 
felves clean, and which, with God's Afliflance, I propofe 
to treat of in the following Books. 

A. The Place where the Boys were inflruSledi 

B. The Place were the Girls were inftruEled. 

C. The Place where the Wrefllers covered themfelves with 


D. The Cold Bath. 

E. The Place in which the Wrefllers anointed themfelves. 

F. The Cold Room. 

G. The moderately warm Room y from which they went 

into the Stove. 
H. The Hot Room. 

I. The Laconicum, or Sweating-Place. 
K. The Warm Bath. 

L. The Outer Portico before the Entrance. 
M. The Outer Portico towards the North. 

N. 7h 


N. The Outer Portico towards the Eajt, called the Xyftus, 

where they exercifed in the Spring. 
O. The Woods between two Porticos. 
P. Open Places for walking, called Peridromides. 
Q^The Stadium, where the Spectators flood to fee the 


The other Places in the Draught are. Exhedrae and 


XX. The Eafi. 
OO. The South. 
PP. The Weft. 
TT. The North. 

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P A L L A D / O's 


Treating particularly on 

The Ancient Roman Temples, 

and fome Churches which are now to 
be feen in Italy , and divers other Parts of 

Translated from the ITALIAN, 


The Defigns carefully copied by B. Cole, Engraver, 

Printed in the Year of our Lord M.DCC.XXXVL 

/ S r xMDdm 

A Setoff £rul of a Wo/A 

B- Cok.JaUp. 



F Art and Induftry are to be exerted in the 
Erection of any common Fabricks, in order that 
they fhould have the exa&eft Symmetry and 
Proportion in all their Parts, they, doubtlefs, 
ought to be difplay'd in the Contrivance of thofe Edifices 
which are fet apart for the Service of God our great 
Creator, and bountiful Benefactor ; and we, doubtlefs, 
ought to compleat them after the beft Manner we are 
able, as a grateful Acknowledgment of all thofe manifold 
Favours which he is continually pleafed to beftow upon us. 
For if Men, in the Erection of their own private" Habi- 
tations, will ufe their utmoft Endeavours to find out the" 
moft skilful and celebrated Architects, with other able* 
Workmen, they are, moft certainly, under greater Obliga- 
tions to be induftrious and careful in the Eredtion of their' 
Churches : And* if in the former their chief End and 
principal Concern is Convenience, they ought, in the latter, 

Z z 2 to 

182 The PREFACE. 

to have a Regard to the Dignity and Grandeur of him 
who is to be invoked and worshipped therein ; and as 
he is the chiefeft Good and Perfection in the Abftract, it is 
highly reafonable that all things devoted to his Service 
mould be brought to the greateft Perfection human Art is 
capable of. And, indeed, when we reflect on this beau- 
tiful Fabrick of the World, with how many wonderful 
Decorations it is replenifh'd ; when we confider how the 
Heavens, by their conftant Revolutions, change the Seafong 
according to the Neceilities of Mankind, and preferve 
themfelves by the exacted Harmony, and due Tempera- 
ment of their Motion ; we cannot doubt, but that as thefe 
little Temples which we erect, ought to bear fome Affinity 
to that immenfe one of his infinite Goodnefs, which was 
perfectly compleated by his bare Fiat, or Almighty Word ; 
fo we are in Duty bound to adorn them with all the 
Embellimments we pollibly can, and to build them in 
fuch a beautiful Manner, and with fuch jufl Proportions, 
that all the Parts together may ftrike the Eyes of the 
Beholders with the moft pleafing Harmony, and that each 
of them distinctly may anfwer with Convenience the Ufe 
for which it was intended. For which Reafon, altho" 
they are worthy of Applaufe, who, being animated by 
the beft Spirit, have already erected Churches and Temples 
in Honour of the Almighty, and are ftill perfuing the 
like glorious Undertakings ; neverthelefs, they do not feem 
to be free from all Blame, if they have not likewife ufed 
their utmoft Endeavours to make them in the moft beau- 
tiful Form, and the nobleft Manner they could poflibly 
devife. Now, Since the ancient Greeks and Romans were 
very diligent, and very ambitious of making Temples for 
their Gods, and that they built them according to the 
exacted Rules of Architecture, in order that they might 
have the greateft Decorations, and the moft beautiful 
Proportions, that were agreeable to the Deity to whom 
they were devoted : I fhall therefore mew you, in this 
Book, the Form and Ornaments of feveral ancient Tem- 
ples, the Ruins whereof are yet to be feen, and I have 


The PREFACE. 183 

made the Defigns of them, that every one may be rightly 
informed in what Figure, and with what Decorations^ 
Churches ought to be erected. And tho' but very little 
of fome of thefe Temples is to be feen above Ground, yet 
from this little, and from the due Consideration of the 
Foundations, which could likewife be feen, I have made, 
by Conjectures, what they muft have been when they 
were whole and perfect. : And, in this Affair, I own my 
(df much indebted to Vitruvius^ becaufe, as what I faw 
was conformable to what he taught, it was no difficult 
Task for me to come to the Knowledge both of their 
Afpects and Forms. But as for what relates to the Decora- 
tions, that is, the Bafes, Columns, Capitals, Cornifhes, and 
the like, I have introduc'd nothing of my own ; but I 
meafur'd them with the utmoft Care and Correctnefs I 
was capable of from feveral Fragments which were found 
in the very Places where thofe Temples ftood. Nor do I 
doubt, but that fuch as fhall perufe this Book, and care- 
fully confider the Defigns of it, will come to underftand. 
many ParTages in Vitruvius^ which were reputed extreamly 
dark and obfcure ; and that their Judgments will be di- 
rected to difcover the moft beautiful and belt, proportion'd. 
Forms of Temples, and to draw feveral very noble In- 
ventions from them ; and by making Ufe of them in 
due Time and Place, they may mew in their Works, 
how judicious Architects may and ought to vary, without 
fwerving from the Precepts of the Art, and how fuch 
Variations are frequently very commendable and very 
graceful. But, before I come to the Defigns, I fhall 
briefly lay down, according to my ufual Manner, thofe 
Rules or Instructions which are to be obferved in the 
Erection of Temples, I my felf having drawn them from 
Vitruvius, and from other celebrated Authors that have 
treated on fo noble an Art. 

Aaa THE 




> ¥%$» ^^§»«§§g»4S§§S»4B§i&if§§g»<B§§9e«£§6» &» 


Of the Situation to be chofen for the ErecJion 

of Temples. 

US CANY was not only the firft Italian Coun- 
try that received Architecture as a foreign 
Invention, from whence the I'll/can Order had 
its Dimensions ; but with refpect to the Things 
relating to thofe Gods, which were worfhipp'd by the 
greateft Part of the World (groveling in the Darknefs of 
Error and Superftition) me was the Miftrefs of all the 
neighbouring Nations, and fhew'd them what kind of 
Temples they ought to ered, what Places were moil com- 
modious, what Ornaments moft fuitable to the Quality 
of the feveral Gods. Altho' in many Temples 'tis too 
evident that fuch Obfervations have not always been duly 
regarded, yet I fhall, with as much Brevity as pofiibie, 


186 PA L LA D 1 0\ 

relate what Writers have left recorded of them, that fuch 
as take Delight in ancient Matters, may have Satisfaction 
in this Particular, and, that the Minds of all may be 
excited and inflam'd to Diligence and Induftry in the 
building of Churches ; for 'tis a very fcandalous and dif- 
honourable Thing, that we who profefs the true Religion, 
mould be excelled in this Refpect by fuch as had no 
Knowledge of the Truth at all. Now, fince the Places 
on which fuch facred Temples ought to be erected, are 
the firft Things which mould fall under our Confidera- 
tion, I fhall treat of them in this Chapter. I fay then, 
that the ancient Tnfcans i directed Temples to be built 
without the City, to Venus, Mars, and Vulcan.) as being 
the Powers that ffcirred up Men's Minds to Lafcivioufnefs, 
Wars, and deftructive Fires ; and within the City, to fuch 
as prefided over Chaftity, Peace, and all "the ufeful Arts. 
To thofe Deities under whofe Guardianfhip the City was 
entrufted, particularly to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva 
(whom they look'd upon likewife as Protectors of the 
City) they erected Temples in the higheft Places, in the 
Middle of their Towns, and in their Citadels. To Pallas, 
Mercury, and IJis, becaufe they were the Superintendants 
of Artificers and Commerce, they built Temples frequently 
near Squares, and fometimes in them. To Apollo and 
Bacchus they built near the Theatre, as to Hercules near 
the Circus and Amphitheatre. To JEfculapius, Hygeia 
the Goddefs of Health, and fuch other Gods by whofe 
Influence and Power they thought Men cured of their 
Diftempers, they built in the moft healthful Places, and 
near to falubrious Waters; that by coming out of a bad 
Air into a good one, and by drinking fuch Waters, they 
might the {boner be cur'd ; whence alfo their Zeal for 
Religion was inflamed the more. Thus they thought it 
agreeable to all the other Gods to find out Places for 
erecting their Temples, according to the Properties they 
afcribed to each of them, and to their particular Manner 
of facrificing. But we, who by the fpecial Grace and 
Favour of God are delivered from this Darknefs, hav- 


ing forfaken their vain and falfe Superftition, mould chufe 

fuch Places for the Situation of our Churches, as are in 

the moft noble and moft populous Parts of the City, as 

diftant as poilible from unfeemly or fcandalous Places, and 

adjoining to beautiful Squares, or other open Places, 

where feveral Streets meet; and from whence every Part of 

the Church may be feen to the belt Advantage, at once 

exciting Devotion, as well as Admiration, in all fuch as view 

and confider it. If there be any Hills in the City, the 

moft elevated Parts thereof ought to be pitctfd upon : But 

in cafe there mould be no fuch Eminences, the Floor of the 

Temple muft be elevated above the Level of the other 

Edifice, as much as poftibly can be ; io that the Afceni: 

will confift of divers Steps, which fets off the Majefty of a 

Church, and begets greater Devotion. The Fronts of the 

Temples are fo to be difpofed, as to look over the moft 

beautiful Part of the City, that Religion may feem to be 

fet as the Guardian and Protectrefs of the Citizens, But if 

Temples are to be erected out of the City, then the Fronts 

are to be fo plac'd as to look towards the High Roads, 

or Navigable Rivers, if there be any adjacent, that Pafleri^ 

gers may fee them, and pay Reverence and Refped before 

the Fronts of the Temples. 


Of the Form in which Temples floould be KrecJed, 
and what is decent to be obferved about them. 

TEMPLES are made either round, quadrangular, 
fexangular, octangular, or with more Angles and 
Sides ; all which mould conclude in the Capacity of a 
Circle : they are fometimes made in the Form of a 
Crofs, and fometimes in other Fafhions and Figures, 
according to the various Inventions of various Men ; but 

B b b all 

188 PALLAD I O's 

all commendable, when they are diftinguifh'd with beau- 
tiful and due Proportions, according to the ftrict Rules of 
Architecture. But the moft agreeable, and moft regular 
Forms, from which all the others receive their Meafures, are 
the round and the quadrangular; and for that Reafon Vitru- 
vius fpeaks of thefe two only, and inftructs us how they ought 
to be comparted, as mall be feen hereafter when we come to 
treat of the Compartments of Temples. In fuch as are not 
round (be they of four, or fix, or more Angles and Sides) 
due Care muff, be taken, that all their Angles be equal. The 
Ancients, as we have fhewn before, had not only a particu- 
lar Regard to the Situation for the building of their Tem- 
ples, and to what might be moft agreeable to each of their 
Deities, but likewife to their Form. For which Reafon, as 
the Sun and the Moon are perpetually whirling their Orbs 
about the World, and with this circular Motion produce fuch 
Effects as are apparent to all Mankind, they built their 
Temples round, or at leaft fo, as that they approached to 
Roundnefs. So they erected the Temples of Vefta, by them 
accounted the Goddefs of the Earth, which Element we 
are fully fatisfied is round. To "Jupiter, as being the Ruler 
of the Air and the Sky, they made Temples which were 
uncovered in the Middle, with Porticos round them, as 
fhall be defcribed hereafter. In the Difpofal of their Deco- 
rations likewife, they always duly confidered what God it 
was to whom they were building ; for which Reafon, they 
made the Temples of Minerva, Mars, and Hercules, of 
Dorick Work ; becaufe Edifices without Elegance or Soft- 
nefs were moft fuitable, in their Opinion, to fuch Divi- 
nities as prefided over War. But they maintained, that to 
Ve?ius, Flora, the Mufes, the Nymphs, and the moft delicate 
Goddeffes, fuch Temples ought to be erected as beft agreed 
with the gay, tender, and virginal Age ; to thefe there- 
fore they confecrated the Corinthian Order, being perfua- 
ded that the fineft Work, and the moft florid, adorn'd 
with Leaves and Volutas, was moft fuitable to fuch an Age. 
On the other Hand, to Juno, Diana, Bacchus, and fuch 
other Gods and Goddeffes (to whom neither the Gravity 



of the former, nor the Delicacy of the latter was agree- 
able) they afcribed the Ionick Order, which retains a Medium 
between the Dorick and the Corinthian, Thus we find that 
the Ancients were truly ingenious in preferving a Decorum 
in their Buildings, in which confifts the Beauties of Archi- 
tecture. We therefore, who have no falfe Gods, in order to 
preferve a due Decorum about the Form of our Churches, 
mould chufe the moll perfed ; and fince the round Form 
alone, among all Figures, is fimple, uniform, equal, ftrong, 
and moft capacious, we mould make our Churches round. 
Befides, it being included within a Circle, wherein neither 
End nor Beginning can be found, and having all its Parts 
alike, and each of them partaking of the Figure of the 
Whole; and laftly, the Extream in every Part being equally 
diftant from the Center, it is the moft proper Figure to 
denote the Unity, EfTence, Uniformity, and Juftice of 
God. Moreover, it muft be acknowledged, that Strength 
and Durablenefs are more requifite in Churches than any 
other Fabricks whatfoever; fince they are confecrated to 
the immediate Service of God Almighty ; and the moft 
valuable, famous, and authentick Records of Towns, 
are preferved in them ; wherefore it ought to be con- 
cluded, that the round Figure, in which there is no 
Corner or Angle, is abfolutely the moft agreeable for 
Churches, which ought like wife to be as large and fpa- 
cious as conveniently may be, that a Multitude of Peo- 
ple may conveniently afiift in them at Divine Service; 
and of all the Figures which are terminated by an equal 
Circumference, none is more large and fpacious than the 
round. I do not deny but fuch Churches are com- 
mendable enough as are made in the Form of a Crols, 
and in that Part which makes the Foot of the Crols, 
have the Entrance over-againft the great Altar and the 
Choir ; as in the two Ifles, extending like Arms on each 
Side, are two other Entrances, or two Altars ; becaufe 
being erecled in the Form of the Crofs, they reprefent 
to Paflengers that Wood on which our blefted Saviour 
was Crucified. I my felf built the Church of St. George 


190 PA L L A D I O's 

the Great at Venice^ in this Form. Churches ought to 
have large Porticos, having greater Columns than are re- 
quired in other Buildings ; and doubtlefs 'tis very reafon- 
able they mould be large and magnificent, and built with 
great and well-proportion'd Parts ; but yet not exceeding 
that Proportion which the Extent of the City Teems to re- 
quire ; becaufe all Pomp and Magnificence are necefiary in 
the Service of God, for which they are fet apart ; their 
Orders of Columns ought to be as beautiful as pofTible, 
and each Order mould have its own proper and convenient 
Decorations. They mould likewife be made of the choiceft 
and moft valuable Materials, that the Divinity may be honou- 
red with the Form, Decorations, and Materials, as much as 
polTible: And indeed, were it pofTible, we ought to make 
them fo exquifitely curious, that nothing could be devifed 
more beautiful; and the Difpofal of them, in all their Parts, 
fhould be fo artful, that fuch as enter them mould be charm'd, 
and ftand aftonifh'd, when they view their Elegance and Beau- 
ty. White, of all Colours, is the moft fuitable to Temples ; 
becaufe the Purity of it, exprefs'd in the Purity of Life, 
is highly acceptable to the Almighty. But in cafe they 
muft be painted, there ought to be no Pictures in them that 
may in the leaft tend to the Alienation of Men's Minds 
from the Contemplation of divine Things. In Temples, 
therefore, we muft never fwerve from Gravity, or from 
fuch Things as, being feen by us, render our Minds more 
fervent in the Service of God, and difpofe us to all man- 
ner of good Actions. 




Concerning the Pro/peels of temples* 

BY the Profped I mean the firft View, or Appear- 
ance that a Temple makes to fuch as come near 
it. Seven are the moft regular Profpedts of Temples, 
and the beft understood ; for which Reafon it feems re- 
quisite, in my Opinion, to infert in this Place as much 
concerning them, as Vitruvius has delivered in the firft 
Chapter of his firft Book, that this Part, which, thro' the 
finall Regard Men mew for ancient Remains,, is by many 
thought difficult, and by few hitherto rightly underftood, 
may become eafy and intelligible by what I mail fay 
relating thereto, as welt as by the fubfequent Draughts, 
which will ferve for Examples of what that great Mafter 
has taught, I have likewife thought convenient to pre- 
serve his very Names and Terms, that fuch as perufe the 
Text of Vitruvius himfelf (which I would advife every 
one to do) may underftand in him the fame Words, and 
not think they are reading different Things, To come 
therefore to our Subject; Temples are made either with 
or without Porticos. Such as are made without, may have 
three Profpects ; the one is called in Antis, that is, a Front 
in Pilafters, Antes being the Name of the Pilafters which 
are made in the Angles or Corners of Edifices : Of the 
other two, the one is called Proftylos y viz. a Front in Co- 
lumns ; and the other, Amphiprojlylos, That called in 
Antis ought to have two Pilafters in the Corners, which 
mould turn from the Sides of the Temple ; and between 
thofe Pilafters in the Middle of the Front, there muft ftand 
two Columns, which muft advance forwards, and fupport 
the Fronton that is to be over the Entrance. The other 
Profpecl, called Proftylos^ muft have yet more than the 
former Columns in the Corners over-againft the Pilafters $ 
and two other Columns, both on the Right and on the 

C c c Lefts 

i 9 2 PALLJDIO's 

Left, in the Turning of the Corners, that is, one on each 
Side : But if the fame Difpofition of Columns be preferved 
in the back Part of the Temple, as in the Front, this is 
the Profpect which is called Amphiprofiylos^ that is, both 
Fronts in Columns. We have not at prefent any Remains 
left of the two firft Sorts of Profpe&s of Temples ; no 
Examples, therefore, of fuch will be introduced here, nei- 
ther have I thought it requifite to make Draughts thereof, 
fince the Platforms and Elevations of each of them are in 
the Vitruvius which is published with the Annotations of 
the moft Reverend Barbaro. But where Temples are made 
with Porticos, then they are either made quite round the 
Temple, or the Front only. Such as have their Porticos 
only in Front, may be faid to have the ProfpecT: Proftylos : 
But fuch as have their Porticos round them, may be made 
with four Profpe&s, fince they are either made with fix 
Columns in the Fore-front, and fix in the Back-front, ha- 
ving eleven Columns on each Side, including the angular 
ones ; and then this Profpedt is called Peripteros, that is 
to fay, wing'd round ; and if fo, the Porticos round the 
Nave mull be as large as one Intercolumnation. If there be 
any ancient Temples that have fix Columns in the Front, 
and notwithftanding have no Porticos round them, then 
they have Semi-columns in the Walls of the Cell on the 
Outfide, accompanying thofe of the Portico, and with the 
very fame Decorations as at Nimes in Provence : and of 
this Kind may be faid to be the Temple of the Ionick Or- 
der in Romey which, at prefent, is the Church of St. Mary 
the /Egyptian^ which thofe Architects did on purpofe to 
make the Nave larger, and to fave Expences, the fame 
round-wing'd Profpecr. nevertheless remaining to every one 
that viewed the Temple in Flank. If Temples be made with 
eight Columns in the Front, and fifteen on the Sides with 
the angular ones ; thefe come to have the Porticos round 
them double, and for that Reafon their Profpect is call'd 
Dipteros> or Double-wing'd. Or Temples are thus made 
with eight Columns in the Front, and fifteen on the Sides ; 
but the Porticos round are not made double, one Order 



of Columns being left out ; by which Means thefe Porticos 
come to be as large as two Intercolumnations, and the 
Thicknefs of a Column ; fo that the Profped of them is 
called Pfeudodipteros, that is to fay, falfe double-wing'd. 
Hermogenes, one of the moft ancient Architects, invented 
this Profpect, who thus made the Porticos round the Tem- 
ples large, and commodious likewife, in order to fave both 
Labour and Expence, and take nothing away from the Pro- 
ved: notwithstanding. Or, to conclude, 'tis fo manag'd, 
that in the one and the other Front there are ten Columns, 
and the Porticos round the Temple double, juft as in thofe 
the Profpecl: whereof is Dipteros* Thefe Temples had other 
Porticos within, with two Orders of Columns one over the 
other, which Columns were fmaller than thofe without; 
the Roof reached from the Columns without to thofe with- 
in, and all the Space which was furrounded by the inner 
Columns was open ; for which Reafon the Profpecl: of 
fuch Temples was Hypethros, that is, uncover'd. Thefe 
Temples were confecrated to Jupiter, as the Sovereign 
Ruler of the Sky and of the Air, and the Altar was 
erected in the Middle of the Court Of this Kind, I am 
apt to think, was the Temple, fome few Remains whereof 
are to be feen in Rome on Monte Cavallo, which was 
dedicated to Jupiter ^uirinalis, and erected by the Empe- 
rors ; becaufe, as Vitruvius tells us himfelf, there was no 
fuch Temple there in his Time. 



Concerning Five Sorts of ^Temples. 

TH E Ancients (as has been before obferved) gene- 
rally made Porticos to their Temples, that the 
People might have a commodious Place to difcourfe and 
walk in without the Nave, in which the Sacrifices were 
offer'd, as well as to beftow the greater Grandeur and 


i 9 4 PALLAD I O's 

Majefty oh thofe Fabricks. Now, fmce the Intervals be- 
tween one Column and another may be made of five 
different Spaces, Vitrwoius has, according thereto, diftin- 
guifh'd five Kinds or Manners of Temples ; the Names 
whereof are Pycnoflylos\ that is, thick fet with Columns ; 
Syflylosy having Columns at a greater Diftance ; Diafiy/os, 
at a ftill greater Diftance ; Areoftylos, at a greater Diftance 
than is proper ; and Eujiylos, that has proper and con- 
venient Intervals. How all thefe Intercolumnations ftand, 
and what Proportion each of them ought to bear with 
the Length of the Columns, I have already fliewn in the 
firft Book, and given you the Draughts of them ; for which 
Reafon I mail fay nothing further concerning them here, 
but that the firft four are defective. The two firft, becaufe 
as their Intercolumnations are of a Diameter and half, 
or two Diameters of a Column, they are very fmall 
and ftrait ; fo that two Perfons cannot go a-breaft into 
the Porticos, but will be obliged to walk one after the 
other ; neither can the Doors, or their Decorations, be feen 
at any Diftance : and, laftly, the Walk round the Tem- 
ple is much embarrafs'd by the Narrownefs of the Space. 
Thefe two Manners however are tolerable, when the Columns 
are made large, as may be obferved in almoft all the 
ancient Temples. The third Manner is defective, becaufe 
as the Intercolumnations are of three Diameters of a Co- 
lumn, they are too large ; whereby the Architraves, thro' 
the Greatnefs of the Space, come to break : but this Defect 
may be rectified by making Arches over the Architraves 
(in the Height of the Frize) which will bear the Weight, 
and leave the Architraves free. The fourth Manner, tho' 
not liable to the Defect we have been fpeaking of (the 
Architraves being not made of Stone or Marble, but Beams 
of Timber being laid over the Columns) may, notwith- 
ftanding, be deem'd defective, fince it is low, wide, and 
mean, being appropriated to the Tufcan Order. From what 
has been faid, it follows, that the moft elegant and beauti- 
ful Manner of Temples is that called Eufiylos^ the Inter- 
columnations whereof confift of two Diameters of a Co- 


lumn, and a fourth Part ; for it ferves perfectly well for 
Ufe, Ornament, and Strength, I have call'd the Manners 
of Temples, and their Profpeds, by the fame Names all 
along as Vitruvius does ; not only for the Reafon above- 
men tion'd, but becaufe fuch Names feem to be already ad- 
mitted into our Language, and are univerfally underftood ; 
and I mall ftill continue to ufe them, in thofe Draughts of 
Temples which are to follow, for the very fame Reafon. 

C H A P. V. 

Of the Compartment of temples. 

ALT HO' in all Buildings it be abfolutely necefTary 
that all their Parts mould correfpond together, and 
have fuch a Proportion, that there be none of them by 
which the Whole may not be meafured, and likewife every 
individual Part ; yet this mould be obferved with the ut- 
moft Precaution in Temples, they being confecrated to the 
fupreme Being ; in Honour of whom, the Work ought to 
be moft excellent and beautiful. For which Reafon, fince 
the round and the quadrangular Forms of Temples are the 
moft regular, I fhall ihew how each of them mould be com- 
parted, and. add likewife fome certain Things with Reiped 
to the Temples in ufe with us Chriftians. Round Temples 
were fometimes made open formerly, that is, without a 
Cell ; but with Columns which fupported the Cupola, as 
thofe that were confecrated to Juno Lacinia ; in the Mid- 
dle whereof ftood the Altar, and the inextinguishable, or 
perpetual Fire upon it. This was the Manner in which fuch 
Temples were comparted. The Diameter of the whole 
Space which the Temple was to take up, was divided 
into three equal Parts ; one was given to the Steps, that 
is, the Afcent of the Floor, and two remain'd for the 

D d d Temple 

i 9 6 PALLAD tm 

Temple itfelf and the Columns, which are plac'd upon Pe- 
deftals, and, with their Bafes and Capitals, are as high as 
the Diameter of the leaft Courfe of the Steps, and a tenth 
Part as thick as they are high. The Architrave, the Frize, 
and the other Decorations are made in this, and in all other 
Kinds of Temples, according to the Directions laid down 
in my firft Book. But fuch Temples as are made clofe, 
that is, with a Nave, are either wing'd round, or made 
with a Portico only in the Front. The Compartment of 
fuch as are wing'd round, is as follows. Firft, two Courfes 
of Steps are made quite round, and the Pedeftals are fet 
upon them, as upon thefe the Columns ; the Wings are 
a fifth Part of the Diameter of the Temple, taking the 
Diameter from the inner Part of the Pedeftals. The Co- 
lumns are as long as the Cell is large, being a tenth 
Part as thick as they are long. The Cupola is to be 
raifed above the Architrave, Frize, and Cornice of the 
Wings, proportionate to the Half of the whole Work. Thus 
were the round Temples comparted by Vitruvius. No Pe- 
deftals, however, are feen in the antient Temples, but the 
Columns begin from the Floor : Which I cannot but 
approve of, becaufe the Going into the Temple is not only 
obftru&ed, in fome Meafure, by thofe Pedeftals ; but the 
Columns which begin from the Floor, render the Temple 
more pompous and majeftick. But if a Portico be erected 
only in the Front of round Temples, it muft be made 
as long as the Nave is large, or an eighth Part lefs : It may 
be fhorter yet, but muft never be fhorter than three Quar- 
ters of the Breadth of the Temple ; nor muft it ever be 
made broader than the third Part of its Length. In qua- 
drangular Temples, the Porticos in the Front are to be 
made as long as the Temple is broad : And if the Manner 
be Eufy/os, which is the moil elegant and beautiful, then 
they muft be comparted after this Manner : If the Profpedt 
be of four Columns, the whole Front of the Temple (omit- 
ting the Projecture of the Bafes of the Columns in the Cor- 
ners) muft be divided into eleven Parts and a Half, one 
whereof we will call a Module> that is, a Meafure whereby 



the other Parts are to be meafured : For in making the 
Columns one Module thick, four muft be given to them, 
three to the middle Intercolumnation, and four and a Half 
to the other two ; that is, two and a Quarter to each. But 
in cafe the Front have fix Columns, then it muft be divi- 
ded into eighteen Parts; if eight, into twenty-four and a 
Half ; and if ten, into one and thirty ; giving always one 
of thefe Parts to the Thicknels of the Columns, three to 
the middle Void, and two and a Half to each of the other. 
The Height of the Columns muft be managed, according 
as they are either Ionick or Corinthian. As to the Regulation 
of the Proipects of the other Manner of Temples (that is, of 
the Pycnojiylos, Syftylos> Diajiylos^ and Areojiylos) you will 
find my Dire&ions therein in the firft Book, under the Topic 
of Intercolumnations. The Antitemple was beyond the Por- 
tico, and the Nave after the former. The Breadth was divided 
into four Parts, and the Length of the Temple confifted of 
eight fuch ; live whereof were given to the Length of the 
Nave, including the Wall wherein the Door is; and the other 
three remained to the Antitemple, which has two Wings of 
Wall on its Sides, continued to the Walls of the Cell. At the 
End of thefe are made two Anta, that is, two Pilafters as 
thick as the Columns of the Portico : And fince between 
thefe Wings there may be a greater or lefs Space, if the larger 
be twenty Foot, there ought to be two Columns put between 
the faid Pilafters, nay more, if there fhould be Occafion, 
directly oppofite t.o the Columns of the Portico. The Ufe 
of them, is to feparate the Antitemple from the Portico : 
And the three or more Voids that will be between the Pila- 
fters, muft be clofcd with Pannels of Wood or Marble ; the 
neceftary Openings however muft be left for entering into 
the Antitemple. But if the Breadth exceed forty Foot, there 
muft be other Columns placed within, over-againft thofe 
between the Pilafters ; and they muft be made as high as 
thofe without, tho' not quite fo thick: For the open Air 
will take away from the Thicknefs of thofe without, and 
the Inclofure will not let the Smallnefs of thofe within be 
feen, fo that they will appear equal. Now, tho' this Com- 


partment fucceeds to the niceft Point in Temples of four 
Columns, yet the fame Proportion does not happen in other 
Profpedts and Manners ; becaufe the Walls of the Nave will 
run counter to the Columns on the Outfide, and be in a 
Line, whence the Naves of thofe Temples will be fomewhat 
larger than we have faid. Thus the Ancients comparted 
their Temples (according to Vitruvius) and had always Por- 
ticos to them, that the People in exceflive Weather might 
avoid the Sun, Rain, Hail, and Snow; and likewife, that 
on folemn and feftival Days they might converfe with 
one another there till the Hour of Sacrifice came on. But 
we, not regarding whether the Porticos furround the Tem- 
ple or not, build our Churches much like the ancient Ba- 
filicas, or Courts of Juftice, wherein (as we have already 
obferved) the Porticos were made within the Building, as 
we do now in our Churches. The Reafon whereof is, that 
the firft who embraced our Religion, being enlighten'd by 
the Truth, ufed to meet, for fear of the Gentiles, in the 
Bafilicas of private Perfons; where afterwards, obferving 
that this Form was very convenient, becaufe the Altar 
could be plac'd in the Room of the Tribunal to great Ad- 
vantage, and that the Choir could ftand round the Altar 
in good Order, while the remaining Part might hold the 
People, they have not thought proper to alter it fince ; and 
for that Reafon, in the Compartment of the Wings or Ifles 
which are made in our Churches, Regard muft be had to 
what I have faid on the Subject of Bajilicas. There is a 
Place added to our Churches, which is feparated from the 
reft, called the Sacrijly or Vefiry, where the Veftments be- 
longing to the Priefts are depofited ; as alfo the Veffels, 
the facred Books, and fuch other Things as are made ufe of 
in divine Service, the Priefts likewife drefling themfelves 
there : and then Towers and Steeples are raifed, wherein 
Bells are hung to fummon the People to their publick De- 
votions ; but fuch Bells are not made ufe of for thefe Pur- 
pofes by any People but Chriftians. Near the Churches are 
erected the Apartments for the Priefts, which ought to 
be made with large Cloifters, and beautiful Gardens ; 



but particularly the Habitations for the facred Virgins, 
or Nuns, ought to be fafe and fecure, high, far from Noife 
and the View of People. Thus much may fuffice with 
refpetl to the Decorum, the Profpecls, the Manners, and 
the Compartments of Temples. I mail now fet down the 
Draughts and Deligns of feveral ancient Temples, and 
obferve the following Method in the doing thereof: Firft, 
I fhall give the Draughts of fuch Temples as are in Rome ; 
next, of fuch as are out of Rome, but are up and down 
in Italy ; and laftly, of fuch as are out of Italy. But the 
better to be underftood, and not to be too tedious (as well 
as not to burthen the Reader by minutely expreiling the 
Meafures of every Part) I have inferted them all, with 
their Numbers and References, in the Draughts. 

N. B. This * reprefents half of the Vicentine Foot di- 
vided into fix Niches, and each Nich into four Minutes^ 
or Parts. The whole Foot contains 48 Minutes, which 
Meafure is made ufe of by Palladio through all Parts of 
the fubfequent Temples. 

u n n u n n n h n u u wt* n n n u n n u n n m 


Concerning the Draughts of feveral ant tent 'Tem- 
ples which are in Rome ; and firft y concern- 
ing the 'Temple of Peace. 

WE fhall begin therefore with a good Omen, from 
the Draughts of the Temple formerly confecrat- 
ed to Peace §, whofe Traces or Footfteps are feen near 
the Church of SanBa Maria Nova, in the Sacred Way ; 
And Hiftorians tell us, that it is in the felf-fame Place 

* Plate I. . § Plate II. 

E e e where 

aoo PA L L A D I Oh 

where the Curia of Romulus and Hofiilius was at firft, and 
afterwards the Houfe of Melius, the Bafilka Portia, the 
Houfe of Ccefar, with its Portico ; which Auguftus demo- 
lished, appearing a Building, in his Opinion, too great and 
magnificent ; but he erected another there which he call'd 
after the Name of his Wife Livia Drujilla. The Emperor 
Claudius begun this Temple, and Vefpafian finifhed it, after 
he return'd victorious from Judea, depositing all the VefTels 
and other Decorations of the Temple of Jerufalem therein, 
which he carry'd in Triumph. This Temple was, as we are 
informed, the greater!:, the moft magnificent, and the richer! 
of the whole City : And, doubtlefs, its Remains, even 
ruined as they are, reprefent fb much Grandeur, that we 
may eafily form an Idea of what it was when whole and 
intire. There was a Gallery before the Entry, which had 
three Voids of Brick- Work ; and the reft was a continued 
Wall, equal to the Breadth of the Front. In the Pilafters 
of the Arches of the Gallery there were Columns placed on 
the outfide for Ornament, the Order whereof followed like- 
wife in the continued Wall. Over this firft Gallery was ano- 
ther open one, with its Balluftrade ; and diredtly over each 
Column was a Statue. There were eight Marble Columns 
of the Corinthian Order within the Temple, five Feet and 
four Inches thick ; with the Capitals and Bafes, fifty three 
Foot long. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice, were ten 
Feet and a half; and fupported the Arching of the middle 
Nave. The Bafe of thefe Columns was higher than the 
Half of the Diameter of the Column, and had its Plinth 
thicker than the third part of its Height: Which the Build- 
ers, in all Probability, difpofed after that Manner, as con- 
ceiving that the Weight to be laid thereon, might, by 
that Means, be better regulated. The Proje&ure thereof 
was. the fixth part of the Diameter of the Column. The 
Architrave, Frize, and Cornice, were curioufly carved. 
Tbe Cymatium of the Architrave deferves to be taken 
Notice of, for its different Form from the others, and the 
Beauty of its Workmanfnip. The Cornice has Modi- 
lions inftead of the Corona. The Metopas of the Rofes, 



which are between the Modilions, are fquare ; and, as I 
have obferved in all the antient Edifices, ought always to be 
made fo. This Temple was burnt, as Hiftorians tell us* 
in the Time of the Emperor Commodus, which I cannot 
believe to be Fadt, fince no Part of it was made of Tim- 
ber ; but it might very probably be deftroyed by an Earth- 
quake, or fome fuch fatal Accident ; and afterwards re- 
paired, when Architecture was not fo well underftood as in 
the Time of Vefpajian. I am the rather induced to give 
into this Opinion, becaufe I find that the Intaglias are not 
fo well done, or fo carefully labour'd, as thofe of the Arch 
of Titus, and other Fabricks, that were ere&ed in good 
Times. The Walls of this Temple were adorned with Sta- 
tues and Pictures, and the Arches thereof made with Com- 
partments of Stuc : Every Part of it, in fhort, was ex- 
tremely beautiful, 

The * Elevation of the outfide and injide of the Front? 
and of the injide of the Flank of the Temple. 

A § Profit at large of the Corinthian Cornice, and other 
ornamental Members of thefaid Temple. 

A. The Bafe, > 

B. The Capital, [of the Columns that fupport 

C. The Architrave, Frize, the Nave in the middle. 

and Cornicey 

D. Compartments of Stuc made in the Arches, 

E. A Scale of four Feet divided into 192 Parts, where- 

with the fame has been meafured. 

. —- — ■ ■ -■■ — ■ .i 1 ■ ■ ... — - 1 .ii. ..,■■■ 1 ■■!. . ■ ■ ' ■- "■ ' V 1 1 ■ !■ '■' ■ ■ ■ » »■■ . ■!— 1 DM ! .. 1 , i i \ :[\ 

* Plate III. § Plate IV, 


202 PA L LA D I 0's 


Concerning the temple of Mars the Avenger. 

TEAR the Torre de Conti may ftill be feen the 
Ruins of the Temple which was formerly eredred 
by Augujlus to Mars the Ave?iger *, purfuant to a Vow 
which he made, when he and Mark Antony, to be re- 
venged for the treacherous Murder of Julius Ccefar, fought 
the Battle of Pharfalia.jigimft. Brutus and Cajfius, and 
conquer' d them. By the Remains of it, we may plainly 
difcern that this was a moft beautiful and ftupendous Fa- 
brick ; and much the more marvellous muft it have been, 
by the Splendor reflected upon it from the Forum juft 
before it ; into which, we are told, that thofe who return'd 
Victors, and Triumphant into the City, carry'd the Tro- 
phies of their Enemies, and other Signals of their Victory. 
We are likewife inform'd, that Augujlus, in the fineft Part 
of it, plac'd two Pictures, wherein were delineated the 
Manner of an Attack, and the Proceflion of a Triumph : 
As alfo two other Pictures, drawn by Apelles ; in one of 
which were Cajlor and Pollux* the Goddefs of ViSlory, and 
Alexander the Great ; in the other, the fame Alexander, 
and the Reprefentation of a Battle. There were two Por- 
ticos there, in which the faid Augujlus dedicated the Sta- 
tues of all fuch as had return'd in Triumph to Rome : 
But at prefent there are not the leaft Footlteps of this 
Forum to be feen, unlefs thofe Wings of Walls which are 
on the Sides of the Temple might poflibly be part of it ; 
which, as there are feveral Places for Statues that are there, 
is no Ways improbable. The Profpect of the Temple is 
wing'd round, which we have before, with Vitruvius, 
calfd Peripteros. And becaufe the Breadth of the Nave 
is above twenty Feet, and the Columns are put between 

* Plate V. 



the two Ant a or Pilaflers of the Antitemple, over-againft 
thofe of the Portico (as we have before obferved mould 
be done in the like Cafe) the Portico is not continu'd 
quite round the Temple. Neither is the faid Rule obferv'd 
on the Outride, in the Wings of the Wall which joins to 
the one and the other Side of the Nave, altho' all Parts 
are correfpondent within : From which we may infer, that 
the publick Street was both behind and in flank, and that 
Auguftus chofe rather to accommodate himfelf to the Si- 
tuation, than incommode the Neighbours, or take theHoufes 
from the rightful Owners. The Manner of this Temple is 
Pycnoftylos. The Porticos are large, in Proportion to the 
Intercolumnations. Within the Nave there is no Trace or 
Footftep whatfoever left, no Fragments in the Wall, where- 
by we might with Confidence affirm, that it had Decorations 
and Tabernacles ; yet fince in all Probability there were, I 
have made fome according to my own Imagination. The 
Columns of the Portico are of the Corinthian Kind. The 
Capitals are wrought with Olive Leaves, and the Abacus 
is much larger than what is generally obferv'd in others of 
that Order, due Regard being had to the Dimeniion of the 
whole Capital. The firif. Leaves, you may fee, fwell a little 
near the Place where they fprout, which adds a peculiar 
Beauty to them. Thefe Porticos have moll: curious Soffitas, 
or, as we may call them, Cielings ; and for that Rea- 
fon I have given their Profil and Profpect in Plans. Round 
this Temple were high Walls of Peperino, which were ruftic 
Work on the outride, and within there were divers Taber- 
nacles, and commodious Places for holding Statues. 

The Decorations which I have added to the injtdes of 
this Temple, are taken frojn feveral a?icient Reliques which 
I found in a neighbouring Place. 

A * Prof I of the Flank of the Portico and of the Nave. 

77je f Elevation of half the Fronts with part of the 
Walls that are on the Side of the Te?nple. 

* Plate VI. f Plate VII. 

Fff n e 

2o 4 PALLAD 70's 

The Elevation * of part of the infide of the Portico* 
and of the Nave, with the Decorations which I have 
added to them. 

The Decorations f of the Cornice of the Portico. 

A. The Capital of the Columns of the Portico. 

B. The Architrave, Prize, and Cornice. 

C. The Soffita of the Portico ; that is, the deling. 

D. A Scale of four Feet divided into 192 Parts, where- 

with thefe Decorations have been meafured. 
The Soffita % of the Portico, and how it turns in the 
Antae, or Pilaflers of the Antitemple. 

E. The Soffita of the Architrave between the Columns. 
Some || particular Decorations of the faid Temple. 

F. The Bafe of the Columns of the Portico, which is con- 

tinued likewife in the Wall round the Temple. 

G. The Cauriola, from whence the Divijions of the Squares 

begin, which are made for Shew in the Wall under 

the Porticos. 
\{.The Plan of the Columns put for an Ornament of 

the Tabernacles in the Nave. 
I. Their Bafe. 
K. The Capital. 

L. The Scale of four Feet divided in 192 Parts. 
M. The Cornice which is feen in the Wings of the Wall, 

and makes a Square from the Sides of the Temple. 
N. A Plan of the Diminution of the Column under the 



Concerning the Temple of Nerva Trajan. 

NEAR the faid Temple, built by Augujius, are 
the Traces or Footfteps of the Temple of Ner- 
va §. The Profpetl: thereof is Proflylos, and the Man- 

* Plate VIII. f Plate IX. \ Plate X. || Plate XI. § Plate XII. 



ner Pycnofiylos. The Portico, with the Nave, is little lefs 
than two Squares in Length. The Floor is rais'd from the 
Ground by a Bafement, which goes round the whole Edi- 
fice, and becomes a Butment to the Steps which lead to 
the Portico, At each End of thefe Butments ftood two 
Statues. The Bafe of the Columns is after the Attick Man- 
ner, different in this from what Vitruvius directs, and 
which I have inferted in my firft Book; becaufe there 
are two Aftragals more in him, one under the Scotia, and 
the other under the Cincture of the Column. The Capitals 
are wrought with Olive Leaves, and difpos'd Five and Five, 
like the Fingers of Men's Hands, as all the ancient Ca- 
pitals of this Kind are made, as I have before obferved ; 
which have a better Effect, and are more agreeable than 
thofe where the Leaves are made Four and Four. In the 
Architrave there are more beautiful Intaglias which divide 
one Fafcia from another ; which Intaglias and Divisions 
are the Sides only of the Temple, becaufe in the Front 
the Architrave and Frize were made even with one ano- 
ther, for placing an Infcription in the moft commodious 
Manner, whereof the few Letters following may ftill be 
feen ; tho' even thefe are imperfect, and defac'd by Time, 


The Cornice is beautifully wrought, having a very fine 
and commodious Projecture. The Architrave, Frize, and 
Cornice, all together, are a fourth part of the Length of 
the Columns. The Walls are made of * Peperino^ and 
crufted with Marble. In the Nave, along the Walls, I 
have put Tabernacles with Statues, fince by the Ruins it 
appears, that there were fuch originally. There was a 
Square before this Temple, in the Center whereof was 
erected the Statue of the faid Emperor on Horfeback. 

* A Stone fo called. 

1 . And 

io6 PALLED /G's 

And its Decorations were fo many, and fo admirable, as 
Hiftorians tell us, that it rais'd the Admiration of all that 
view'd them ; imagining them to be Works of Giants, ra- 
ther than of Men. When the Emperor Conjlans came to 
Rome, the rare Structure of this Edifice, at firft, ftruck his 
Eye in the moft agreeable Manner ; and then turning to 
his Architect, he faid, that he would make a Horfe like that 
of Nerva, at Confiantinople, to immortalize his own Me- 
mory : Whereupon Ormifidas (for that was the Name of 
his Architect) anfvver'd him, that it was necellary to make 
fuch a Stable for him firft, pointing to this Square. The 
Columns which furround it have no Pedeftals, but ftand 
on the Ground ; and it was highly requisite that the 
Temple mould be higher than the other Parts. Thefe 
Columns are likewife Corinthian, and there were little 
Pilafters upon the Cornice directly over them. Upon 
each Pilafter there muft have been a Statue ; nor is it 
any Matter of Wonder, that I place fo many Statues in 
thefe Edifices: fince, we are told, they were fo nume- 
rous in Rome, that they feem'd another People. 

E. The Entry of the Court before the Temple, 

F. The Entry by the Flank. 

G. The Portico. 
H. The Te?nple. 

I. The Sides of the Court. 

K. The Doors to the Front of the Court over-againfl the 

L. The place where the Statue of Trajan food. 

Elevation * of half of the Out-portico, a7id of the Entry 
on the Side of it. 

Elevation f of half of the Infde of the Temple, with 
the Entry on the Side of it. 

Elevation % of the Flank of the Portico ; and the Dif- 
poftion of the Columns which were round the Court, is 
feen through the Intercolumnations. 

* Plate XIII. f Plate XIV. % Plate XV. 



Half * the Front of the Court, over-againfl the Temple. 
The Decorations f of the Portico of the Temple, 

A. The Bafement of the whole Edifice, 

B. The Bafe of the Column. 

C. The Architrave, 

D. The Frize. 

E. The Cornice. 

F. A Scale of two Feet divided into 96 Parts. 

G. The Soffita of the Architrave within the Columns, 
The Decorations % which were round the Court. 

H. The Architrave. 

I. The Frize, which was wrought with Figures in Baffo* 

K. The Cornice. 

L. The little Pilaflers, upon which Jlood the Statues. 
M. The Decorations of the Doors which were in the Front 
of the Court over-againft the Portico of the Temple. 
N. The Bafe of the Columns, 
Q.A Scale of three Feet divided into 144 Parts, 



Concerning the "Temple of Antoninus and 


NEAR to the Temple of Peace, which we have 
already defcribed, is the Temple of Antoninus 
and Faufiina **, from whence Antonine, as fome imagine 
was rank'd by the Antients amongft the Number of their 
Gods j becaufe he had Salian and Antoninian Priefts 
befides his Temple. The Front of this ' Temple is 
made in Columns, and the Manner of it is Pycnojlylos. 
The Floor of it is elevated from the Ground one third 

* "Plate XVI. f Plate XVII. J Plate XVIII. ** pj 3te XIX. 

O g g Part 

208 PALLAD /O's 

Part of the Height of the Columns of the Portico, to 
which you go up by Steps ; and to thefe a kind of Pe- 
deftal is made by two Bafements, the Mouldings whereof 
are continu'd round the whole Temple. The Bafe of thefe 
Bafements is thicker than one Half of the Cymatium, be- 
ing alfo made more plain or fimple : And fo the Antients, 
as I have already obferved, made all fuch Bafements, and 
likewife the Pedeftals that are fet under the Columns; and 
that with very good reafon, flnce all the Parts of any Edi- 
fice whatever ought to be the more folid, the nearer they 
are to the Earth. In the Extremities of thefe Bafements, 
there were two Statues directly over the angular Columns 
of the Portico ; that is, one at each End. The Bafe of the 
Columns is Attick; the Capital is wrought with Olive Leaves; 
the Architrave, Frize, and Cornice, have a quarter, and a 
third of the faid quarter Part, of the Height of the Co- 
lumns. In the Architrave thefe Words are ftill vifible : 


There are Gryphons carv'd in the Frize, which turn their 
Faces towards each other, and flretch out a Paw towards 
a Candleftick, much like thofe made Ufe of in Sacrifices. 
There are no Dentils cut in the Cornice, which is without 
Modilions j but has a pretty large Ovolo between the Den- 
til and Corona. Tho' we cannot now difcern whether there 
were any Decorations in this Temple ; yet confidering the 
Grandeur and Magnificence of thofe Emperors, I cannot 
but think there were fome, and for that Reafon I have 
added Statues. It had a Court before it, made of Pepe- 
rino ; in the Entry whereof, over-againft the Portico of the 
Temple, were extraordinary fine Arches and Columns, and 
a Variety of Decorations all round it, tho' there are no 
Footfteps thereof to be feen at prefent ; nay, I faw one 
Part of it demolim'd my felf, which had flood till that 
Time. There were two other open Entrys, that is, with- 
out Arches on the Sides of the Temple. In the midft of 



the Court was an Equeftrian Statue of Antoninus, made of 
Brafs, which ftands now in the Square of the Capital. 

A. The place where the Statue of Antonine flood* 

B. The Portico of the 7emple, 

C. The Temple. 

D. The Entry of the Court over-agai?ifi the Temple. 

E. The Entry by the Portico into the Court. 

The Elevation * of half of the Front of the Temple, and 
part of the Wall of the Court. 

Elevation f of the infde of the Temple, with a part 
of the Entablature within the Portico, and a part of the 
Court Wall. 

The Elevation % of the outfde in Flank, in which, and 
thro the Intercolumnations of the Portico, you may fee the 
Order of the Columns and other Decorations which were 
round the Court. 

The Elevation \\ of half the Entry t infde of the Courts 
over-againft the Front of the Temple. 

The Decorations § of the Portico of the Temple. 

A. The Bafe round the whole Edifice. 

B. The Bafe of the Columns. 

C. The Capital. 

D. The Architrave, whereon the Infcription was carvd* 

E. The Frize. 

F. The Cornice. 

G. A little Cornice made m the Sides of the Temple^ on 

the outfde. 
H. A Scale of four Feet divided into 192 parts. 
I. The Dentil of the Cornice without carving. 

* Plate XX. f Plate XXI. t Plate XXII. || Plate XXIII. § Plate XXIV. 


210 PALLAD10\ 


Concerning the Temples of the Sun and Moon. 

IN the Gardens of SanEla Maria Nova, not far from 
the Arch of Titus, there are two Temples * which 
are erected after the fame Fafhion or Structure, and have 
the very fame Decorations. One of them, by its Situation 
to the Eaji, is fuppofed to have been the Temple of the 
Sun ; as the other of the Moon, by its being placed towards 
the Weft. They were erected and dedicated by Titus Ta- 
citus, King of the Romans (tho originally King of the 
Sabines.) They come very near the circular Form, becaufe 
they are as broad as they are long; having Refpect to 
the Courfe of thofe Planets round the Heavens. The Gal- 
leries, which were before the Entrance to thefe Temples, 
are entirely demolifh'd ; nor are there any other Decorations 
of them to be feen, but what are in the Arches, which 
have Compartments of Stuc very curioufly wrought, and 
according to a beautiful Defign. The Walls of thefe Tem- 
ples are vaftly thick : And between the one and the other 
Temple, on the Flank of the great Chapels (which are over 
againft the Entry) are feen the Faces or Footfteps of lome 
Stairs, which muft, doubtlefs, have led to the Roof. I have 
made the Fore-galleries, and the Decorations of the In- 
flde, according to the Idea I have conceived of them, by 
what is now Handing above Ground, and the fmall Matter 
that could be difcern'd of the Foundations, where the 
Plans of both Hand join'd together; as likewife the 
Place where the Stairs were, which led, as I before 
obferved, to the Roof. Near thefe Plans are the Elevations 
both of the infide and out. 

■ ■ i ■ i ■_ im u . ■ _ wm^mmm ^-»-m» ii_oi__ i __ji^m—- ^— ^■^™— 

* Plate XXV. 



The Decorations % that is> thofe of the Arches within 
(the others being demolifhed) and the Elevation of the in- 
fide in Flank. 

A.The Compartments of the Chapels, over-againft the 

Doors, which have each of them twelve Squares. 
B. The Profit and Mouldings of thofe Squares. 
CThe Compartments of the great Nave, divided into 

nine Squares. 
D. The Prof I and Mouldings of thofe Squares. 

C H A P. XL 

Concerning the Temple commonly called the 


NEAR the Trophies of Marius is feen the fol- 
lowing f Fabrick, of a circular Figure, which, 
in Imitation of the Pantheon, is the largeft round Edifice 
in all Rome. The Place is vulgarly called La Galluce^ 
which gave fome People an Opportunity of faying, that 
it was the Baflica of Caius and Lucius ; which, together 
with a noble Portico, Auguflus caus'd to be erected in 
Commemoration of Caius and Lucius his Grand-children. 
But this, I am apt to believe, is not Matter of Fact j fince 
this Fabrick has none of thofe Parts which are absolutely 
neceffary in Baflicas (the manner of making which I 
have above defcrib'd in the third Book, when, according 
to the Rules laid down by Vitruvius, I divided the Parts 
of a Square) and for that Reafon I am fully perfuaded 
this was a Temple. It is all Brick-work, which muft 
have been incrufted, no doubt, with Marble, but is now 
all taken away. The middle Nave, which is perfectly 
Circular, is divided into ten Parts, and in each of them 

* Plate XXVI. t Plate XXVII. 

H h h there 


there is a Chapel inchas'd in the Thicknefs of the Wall, 
except in that where the Entrance is. The two Naves on 
the Sides, muft have been curioufly embellim'd, becaufe 
they contain fuch a Number of Niches : And, in all Pro- 
bability, there were Columns and other Decorations in 
them, which, attending thole Niches, muft unavoidably 
produce an admirable EflecT:. They, who directed the Cha- 
pels of. the Emperor and the King of France in St. Pe- 
ters (which have been nnce demoliih'd) took their Model 
from this Structure, which, as all its Parts fupport one 
another, is prodigiously ftrong ; and, tho' fo very antient, 
is ftill Handing. 

The Line A. B. dividing the Plan, flews the Setlion of 
the Temple. 


Concerning the Temple of Jupiter. 

UPON the ^uirinal Mount, now known by the 
Name of Monte Cavallo, behind the Tenements of 
the Lords Colonna, are feen the Footfteps of the following 
Fabrick *, which is commonly called the F rontifpiece of 
Nero. Some fay, the Tower of Meccenas flood here, from 
which Nero faw Rome in Flames, to his great Satisfaction 
and Delight. But herein they are moft grofly miftaken, 
becaufe that Tower was on the Ffquilme Mount, not far 
diftant from the Baths of Dioclefian. Others have ima- 
gin'd, that the Cornelian Family dwelt there. I am of 
Opinion, for my Part, that 'twas a Temple dedicated to 
"Jupiter : Becaufe I faw feveral People, when I was at 
Rome, digging in the Place where the Body of the Tem- 

* Plate XXVIII. 



pie flood, where fome Ionick Capitals were found, which 
ferv'd for the inner Part of the Temple, and were thofe 
of the Angles of the Galleries ; for the Middle of the Tern- 
pie, in my Opinion, was uncover'd. The Profped of this 
Temple was the falfe-wing'd, or, as Vitruvius calls it, 
Pfeudodipteros. The Manner of it was PycnpflyloSj or of 
Columns thick fet. The Columns of the Porticos without 
were Corinthian. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice, were 
the fourth Part of the Altitude of the Columns. The Cy- 
matium of the Architrave was of a very fine Invention. 
The Frize in the Sides was carv'd with Foliage ; but in the 
Front, which is now demolifh'd, there mud have been an 
Infcription. The Modilions of the Cornice are Square, one 
whereof comes direclly over the middle of the Column. 
The Modilions in the Cornice of the Pediment are perpen- 
dicular upon the Column, and ought to be made fo. 
Within this Temple there mufl have been Porticos, in fuch 
manner as I have drawn them. There was a Court round 
it, adorn'd with Columns and Statues, and two Horfes be- 
fore it, which are now in the Street ; and 'tis from hence 
that this Mount has taken the Name of Monte Cavalh' 
One of them was made by Praxiteles^ and the other by 
Phidias. There were very commodious Stairs going up to 
the Temple : And this was the largeft and beft decorated 
Temple, according to my Opinion, in all Rome. 

The Plan comprehends the whole Building, with the 
back Part where the Stairs flood, which, as they went 
one over another, led to the Courts on the Sides of the 
Temple. The Elevation of this fort of Stairs, with their 
Plan on a large Scale, I have inferted in my firft Book s 
where I treat of the various Ways of making Stairs. 

A. The Pedeftal 'where the Horfe flood which was made by 

Phidias j as the other was at a great Diflance from 
thisy it could not be marked in the Defign. 

B. The Portico of the Temple. 

C. The Body of the Temple, 




D. The Courts on either Side of the Temple. 

Half the * Front of the Portico on the outjtde, with 
Part of the Decorations of the Court. 

Half f the inftde of the Temple, with part of the De- 
corations of the Court. 

The Flank % of the Temple on the outfide. 

The Flank || of the infide, both of the Portico and of the 
Nave of the Temple. 

The Decorations % drawn at large. 

A. The Capital. 

B. The Architrave. 

C. The Frize. 

D. The Cornice. 

E. The Bafe of the Columns. 

F. The Bafe of the Pilafiers behind the Columns. 

G. The Acroteria, or fmall Pedeflals having Statues upon 

H. The Cornice round the Court. 
I. A Four- foot Scale divided into 192 Parts. 

N. B. The Cornice H is drawn by a larger Scale than 
the Scale I, becaufe the fmall Members thereof could not 
otherwife be di/linguijh'd. 


Concerning the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. 

TH E following Church §§, now that of St. Mary 
the /Egyptian, is feen almoft whole and perfedt 
near the Senatorian Bridge, at prefent St. Marys. The 
antient Name of it is not certainly known. Some fay, 
'twas the Temple of Manly Fortune, whereof this Mira- 
cle is upon Record, that being in a Flame with every 

* Plate XXIX. f Plate XXX. % Plate XXXI. II Plate XXXII. 

§ Plate XXXIIL §§ Plate XXXIV. 



thing in it, the gilded wooden Statue, which was erected 
there by Servius Tullius, was the only valuable Part that 
was not damaged. But firice the Temples dedicated to 
Fortune were for the Generality made round, others have 
maintained, that it was not a Temple, but the Bafilica of 
Caius Lucius, grounding their Notion upon certain Letters 
which were found there. Irt my Opinion, however, this 
cannot be fo ; both becaufe the Structure is fmall, whereas 
the Bafilicas were of Necefiity very large, on Account of 
the vaft Number of Perfons that reforted to them about 
their Affairs ; and becaufe the Porticos were made within 
the Edifice in the Bafilicas ; whereas in this there is not the 
leaft Sign of any Portico at all ; from whence I am fully 
perfuaded, that it was a Temple. The Profpect thereof is 
Projlylos, and in the Walls of the Nave on the outfide 
there are half Columns, which accompany thofe of the Por- 
tico, and have the very fame Decorations : So that to mch 
as view it in Flank, it prefents the ProfpecT: Peripteros, or 
wing'd-round. The Intercolumnations are of two Diameters 
and a Quarter. The Manner thereof is Syftytos. The Floor 
of the Temple is rais'd fix Feet and a Half from the 
Ground. There is an Afcent by Steps, butted by the Bafe- 
ment that fupports the whole Structure. The Columns 
are Ionick, and the Bafe is Attick ; tho' one would ima- 
gine it mould have been Ionick too, as the Capital is - it 
is not, however, found in any Fabrick, that the Antients 
made ufe of the Ionick defcribed by Fitruvius. The 
Columns are fluted, and have four and twenty Grooves. 
The Volutes of the Capitals are Elliptical, and the Ca- 
pitals in the Angles of the Portico and the Temple 
front two Ways, which I do not recoiled that I have 
feen any where elfe : And iince this Invention feems to 
me to be very beautiful and graceful, I have made ufe 
of it in feveral Buildings. The Defign will direct you 
how to do it. The Decorations of the Door of the 
Temple are very curious, and have an excellent Propor- 
tion. This whole Temple is built with Peperino, cover 'd 
with Stuc, 

\\i A. The 


216 PA L LA D /O's 

A. The Steps to the Temple. 

B. The Portico of the Temple. 

C. The Temple. 
D.The Bafe 1 

B". The Dado >of the Bafement of the whole Edifice* 

F. The Cimaize J 

G. The Bafe of the Columns over the Bafement. 
H. Part of the Temple Door feen in Front. 

I, Prof I of the fa?ne with its Scrowl. 

A Plan * and Elevation of the Temple in Flank. 

A. The Steps to the Temple. 

jB. The Portico of the Temple. 

C. Part of the Temple. 

Plan f and Elevation of the Temple in Front, 

A. The Steps of the Temple. 

B. A part of the Portico. 

The Decorations % of the Qutfide at large. 

D. Plan of the Capital. 

E. The Capital in Front* 

F. The Architrave. 
G.The Frize. 

H. The Cornice. 

I. The Decorations of the Frize at large. 

K. Plan of the Capital feen by the Angle^ whereby the 

Manner of making it may eafly be difcerrid* 
L. Half of the Capital feen in the Flank. 
M. A. Prof I of the faid Capital without its Volute. 

N. B. The faid Decorations have been meafured with 
the Vicentine Feet divided as above-mention 'd, into 48 

* Plate XXXV. t Plate XXXVI, % Plate XXXVII. 




Concerning the ^Temple of Vefta. 

TO follow the Courfe of the River Tyber, near 
this laft Temple there is another round one, 
call'd at prefent St. Stephens, *. Hiftorians tell us, that 
it was built by Numa Pompi/ms, and dedicated to the 
Goddefs Vefta. He would have it circular, like the 
Globe of the World, whereby Mankind fubiifts, und where- 
of the faid Vefta was the Goddefs. This Temple is of the 
Corinthian Order. The Intercolumnations have a Diameter 
and a Half. The Columns, with the Bafes and Capitals, 
are eleven Teftas in length. By Tefta is underftood, as 
was before obferved, the Diameter of a Column towards 
the Bafe of it. The Bafes have no Plinth, but the Steps, 
on which they reft, ferve inftead of it : And this was 
directed by the Architect, on purpofe that the Entrance 
into the Portico might be the eafier ; the Manner of it 
being Pycnoftylos, or of Columns thick fet. The Nave, 
taking in the Thicknefs of the Wall, has in Diameter a% 
much as the Columns are long. The Capitals are wrought 
with Olive Leaves. The Cornice is unfeen, but added by 
me in the Defign. There are handfome Compartments under 
the Soffita of the Portico. The Door and Windows have 
abundance of curious, tho' plain Decorations. Under the 
Portico, as alfo within the Temple, are the Cymatiums 
which fupport the Windows. They go quite round, and 
appear like a Bafement whereon the Wall is laid, and 
upon which the Cupola repofes. This Wall, on the out- 
fide, that is to fay, under the Porticos, is diftinguifh'd by 
Squares from the faid Cornice to the Soffita, and is polim'd 
on the inlide, having a Cornice like that of the Portico^ 
which fupports the Cupola. 

* Plate XXXVIII. 


2t8 PA L LA D 10% 

The Elevation * both of the infide and out. 

A. The Temple Door at large. 

B. The Window of the fame. 

C. A Three-foot Scale divided in 1 44. parts 
The particular f Members at large. 

A. The Bafe of the Columns. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave. 

D. The Frize. 

E. The Cornice. 

F. 7$*? Soffita of the Portico. 

G. The littleCornice of the outfde going round the Nave,upon 

which the fquare Courfes of Stone begin to befeen. 
H. The Bafe of the faid Cornice, which anfwers to the 

Bafe of the Columns. 
I. The little Cornice within, whereon the Window-fells 

reft. ^ 

K. A Four-foot Scale divided in 192 parts, whereby 

the faid Members have been meafured. 


Concerning the Temple of Mars. 

IN that which is commonly call'd the Brief s Square, 
as you go from the Rotunda to the Pillar of Anto- 
nine, the Remains of the % following Temple are feen, 
which, according to fome, was erected by the Emperor 
Afitonine, and dedicated to the God Mars. The Profpecl: 
thereof is Peripteros, or wing'd round. The Manner Pyc- 
nojlylos, or of Columns thick fet. The Intercolumnations 
have a Diameter and a Half. The furrounding Porticos 
are fo much the larger by one Intercolumnation, by how 
much the more the Antes, or Pilafters of the remainder 
of the Wall, project outwards. The Columns are of the 

* Plate XXXIX. f Plate XL. % Plate XLI. •• 



Corinthian Order. The Bafe is Attick^ and has a little 
Aftragal under the Column's Cincture ; the Liftel whereof 
is very fmall, and appears pretty enough. It is always 
made as fmall when it is join'd with an Aftragal over the 
Torus of the Bafe, being likewife a fort of Aftragal, be- 
caufe there is no manner of Danger on Account of its 
breaking. The Capital is wrought with Olive-Leaves, and 
well-defign'd. The Architrave, inftead of the Ogee, has a 
half Ovolo, and over it is a Cavetto ; and this has many 
curious Intaglias, quite different from thofe of the Tem- 
ple of Peace y and that which we before obferv'd was on 
the ^uirinal Mount dedicated to Jupiter. The Frize pro- 
jects one eighth part of its Height, and fwells in the Mid- 
dle. The Cornice has its Modilion Square, and over it 
the Corona without Dentil, which, as Vitruvius obferves, 
ought to be done every time Modilions are ufed ; which 
Rule, however, is practifed but in few antient Buildings. 
Over the Cornice in the Sides of the Temple is another 
little Cornice, the naked Part whereof falls perpendicular 
upon that of the Modilions, and was made to let the 
Statues fo, that they might be perfectly feen, and that 
their Feet and Legs might not be conceal'd by the Pro- 
jection of the Cornice. In the inner part of the Portico 
is an Architrave, of the fame Height as that without : 
But it has three Fafcias, which the other has not. The 
Members which divide one Fafcia from another, are wrought 
with little Intaglias of Leaves and little Arches, and the 
lefter Fafcia with Foliage. Befides this, inftead of an Ogee, 
this Fafcia has a Fufarole with a Gula carv'd with Leaves 
in a moft beautiful Manner. The Architrave fupports the 
Arches of the Porticos. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice, 
are one fifth Part and a Half of the Length of the Co- 
lumns : And tho' they ftiould be lefs than the fifth Part, 
yet they anfwer admirably, and are very beautiful. The out- 
fide of the Walls are of Peperino, and within the Temple are 
other Brick- Walls, the better to fupport the Vault, which 
was made with moft curious Squares, wrought with Stuc. 
Thefe Walls were crufted with Marble. There were alfo 

Kkk Niches 

220 PA L LA D I 0's 

Niches and Columns all round, by way of Ornament. Al- 
moft a whole Flank of this Temple is yet to be feen ; but 
I have endeavour'd to reprefent this Fabrick compleat, al- 
ways following Vitruvius\ Defcription of it. 

The Elevation * of the Portico in Front. 

The Elevation f of part of the Temple^ feen without on 

one Jtde. 
The Elevation % of another part of the Portico^ and of 

the Temple within. 
The Decorations \\ of the Columns on a large Scale, 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave. 

D. The Frize. 

E. The Cornice. 

F. The little Cornice of the Statues. 

G. The Soffita of the Architrave between the Columns. 
H.The Architrave of the inner part of the Porticos 

which fupport the Arches of it. 
I. A Four-foot Scale divided into 192 Parts. 


Concerning the Baptiftery of Conftantine. 

TH E following Draughts are of Conjlantines § Bap- 
tiftery, which is at St. Johns in the Lateran. This 
Temple, in my Opinion, is a modern Work, made out of 
the Spoils and Ruins of antient Fabricks. But as the De- 
iign is beautiful, and the Decorations very well carv'd 
with divers forts of Intaglias (which may be of Service 
to an Architect on various Occasions) I thought my felf 

* Plate XLIL t Plate XLIII t Plate XLIV. || Plate XLV, 

Plate XL VI. 



oblig'd, as it were, to infert it among the antient Works ; 
and the rather, becaufe it is accounted a very good Piece 
by every body. The Columns are of Porphyry, and of the 
Compofite Order. The Bafe is a Compound of the Attick 
and Ionick ; the two Torus's being Attick, and the two 
Scotias Ionick : But inftead of two Aftragals which are 
made between the Scotias in the Ionick) this has one onlyj, 
that takes up the the Room of two. All thefe Members 
are beautifully carv'd, and have fine Intaglias. The Bafes 
of the Columns in the Portico are embellim'd with Leaves? 
running up along the Shaft of the Column, which is worth 
obferving ; and mews the Architect to be a Man of very 
folid Judgment, who could accommodate Things fo well • 
And tho' the Shafts of the Columns were not fo long a§ 
they mould be, yet by this Management he did not rob 
the Work in the leaft of any of its Beauty or Majefly. I 
have made Ufe myfelf of the very fame Expedient in the 
Columns which I have put for Ornament in the Door, {ince 
they did not reach fo far as was neceffary ; but as they are 
of fuch fine Marble, they ought not to be left out of the 
Work. The Capitals are compounded of Ionick and Corin- 
thian, with Acanthus Leaves. The Manner how they ought 
to be wrought, is laid down in my firft Book. The 
Architrave is very well carv'd, its Cymaize having a 
Fufarole and above half an Ovolo, inftead of a Gula-inveria. 
The Frize is plain. The Cornice has two Gula-rectas one 
above the other, which is a Thing that very feldom happens \ 
I mean, that two Members of the very fame fort fhould 
be put over each other, without fome other intermediate 
Member befides the Ljftel. Over thefe Gula-reftas, or 
Cymatiums is a Dentil, and then the Corona with its 
Ogee, and laft of all a Gula-recta, or another Cymaize i 
So that the Architect in this Cornice has, by making 
Dentils, avoided Modilions. 

The particular * Members at large, 

* Plate XLVIL 

A. The 

222 PALLED /O's 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice. 

D. The Soffita of the Architrave between each Column, 

E. Plan of the Capital. 

F. A Three-foot Scale divided into 144 Parts. 


Concerning the Temple of Brarnante. 

AFTER the Pomp and Grandeur of the Roman 
Empire began to decline, by the perpetual Irrup- 
tion of Barbarians, Architecture (the fame Fate 
then likewife attended all other Arts and Sciences) de- 
clining from its Original Beauty and Perfection, grew 
every Day worfe and worfe ; infomuch that, at laft, all 
Knowledge of beautiful Proportions, and the elegant 
Manner of Building were loft, and the Art came to fuch 
a low Ebb, that it could not polTibly be lower. But, 
as all human Affairs are in a perpetual Flux and Motion, 
and as it lb happens, that at one time they attain the 
Achme of their Perfection, and at another defcend to 
their utmofl Imperfection : SoArchitectdre, in the 
Days of our Fore-fathers, breaking out of the Darknefs 
wherein it had lain fb long in Oblivion, began to appear 
once more in a fair and advantageous Light. For which 
Reafon, under the Pontificate of Pope Julius II. Bra?nante, 
who was a molt excellent Artift, and a curious Observer of 
the antient Buildings, made very beautiful Edifices in Rome ; 
and after him folio w'd Michael Angela Buotwrroti, Jacobo 
San/bvino, Balthafar da Sienna, Antonio da San Gallo s 
Michael de San Michele, Sebafiian Serlio, George Vafari, 
"Jacobo Barozzio da Vignola, and the Cavalier Lione, whofe 
furprifing Structures may be feen in Rome, Florence, Venice, 



Milan, and in other Cities of Italy : Befides, moll of thefe 
Archite&s were likewife excellent Painters, Sculptors, and 
Penmen ; fome of whom are Alive to this Day, together 
with feveral others, whom, to avoid being tedious, I mail 
pafs over in Silence. But to return to our Subject ; fince it 
is certain, that Bramante was the firfr. who brought to 
light the true and beautiful Architecture, which 
lay conceal'd from the Time of the Antients to his own, 
I thought my felf indifpenfably oblig'd to afford Room 
to his Works among thofe of the faid Antients : For which 
Reafon I have in this Book fet down the following Tern 
pie *, erected by him upon the yaniculan Mount ; and 
call'd San Pietro Mont or lid, not only from this Mount, but 
alfo, becaufe it is faid that St. Peter was crucified there. 

Elevation f both of the infide and outjide of the Temple. 


Concerning the Temple of Jupiter Stator. 

BETWEEN the Capitol and Mount Palatine, near 
the Roman Forum, are three % Columns of the 
Corinthian Order: Which, as fome fay, were Part of the 
Flank of the Temple of Vulcan ; and, according to 
others, of the Temple of Romulus. There are fome like- 
wife, who are of my Opinion, that they belong'd to 
the Temple of Jupiter Stator ; which Temple was fb- 
lemnly vow'd to be erected by Romulus, when the Sa- 
bines having furpriz'd the Capitol and Citadel by Trea- 
chery, were victorioufly marching to Mount Pala- 
tine, where he kept his Court. Others, however, are 
of Opinion, that thefe Columns, together with thofe 

* Plate XLVIII, f Plate XLIX. % Plate L, 

L 11 below 

224 PA L LA D I O's 

below the Capitol, were part of the Bridge made by Cali- 
gula's Dire&ions, for pafling from Mount Palatine to the 
Capitol : which Notion is known to have no Shadow of 
Truth, fince it may be feen by the Decorations, that thefe 
Columns belong'd to two different Fabricks; befides, the 
Bridge fo order'd to be made by Caligula, was of Tim- 
ber, and crofs'd the Roman Forum. But to return to our 
Subject, let thefe Columns have belong'd to what Temple 
you will, I never faw better Work, nor more curiouily 
wrought. All the Members are moft accurately form'd, and 
well underftood. The Profpe£t of this Temple was, in my 
Opinion, Peripteros, or wing'd-round ; and the Manner of 
it Pycnoflylos, or of Columns thick fet. It had eight Co- 
lumns in each Front, and fifteen in each Flank, including 
thofe of the Angles. The Bafes are compounded of Attick 
and Ionick. The Capitals are worthy of particular Notice, 
on account of the curious Intaglias on the Abacus. The 
Architrave, Frize, and Cornice, have a fourth Part of the 
Length of the Columns. The Cornice alone wants very 
little of the Height of the Architrave and Frize together, 
which is what I never faw in any other Edifice. 

The Elevation * of the Front of the Temple. 
The particular f Members at large. 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice. 

D. Part of the Sojfta of the Architrave between the 


E. A Four-foot Scale divided into 192 parts. 

* Plate LI. f Plate LII. 




Concerning the Temple of Jupiter the Thunderer* 

AT the Foot of the Capitol are fome Traces of the 
following * Temple, which was confecrated to Ju- 
piter the Thunderer, and erected by Augufius for his De- 
liverance from an eminent Danger in the Cantabrian War ; 
when in an Expedition which he made by Night, his 
Litter was pierced through with an Arrow ; by which 
Accident a Slave that was juft before him was kill'd, 
and he preferved unhurt. But I very much Queftion the 
Truth of it, becaufe the remaining Decorations are moft 
exquifitely wrought with fine Intaglias: And, 'tis plain, 
that, in the Days of Auguftus, all Works were made fo- 
lid and fubftantial ; as appears by the Portico of the 
Rotunda to the Pantheon (now confecrated to the Virgin 
Mary) which is very plain and fimple, as feveral other 
Edifices are, which were feated at that time. Some think, 
that the Columns here were Part of Caligula's Bridge ; but 
I have demonstrated the Falfity of that in the laft Chapter. 
The Profpect. of this Temple is Dipteros, or double-wing'd. 
It muft be acknowledged, that in that Part of it which is 
towards the Capitol, there was no Portico : But, as far as 
I could perceive from other Fabricks erected near Hills, I 
am of Opinion, that it was built on that Side, after the 
Manner of the Plan ; which is, that it had an extreme 
thick Wall, inclofing the Nave and the Porticos, and, after 
leaving fome Space between, then another Wall with 
Stone Land-tyes, which enter'd into the Hill. The Rea- 
fon why the Antients in fuch Cafes made the flrft Wall 
fo very thick, was, that no Wet might penetrate into 
the inner Part of the Structure : And they made the 

* Plate LIU, 


226 PALLAD1 m 

other Wall with Stone Land-tyes, in order to fuftain 
the conftant Weight of the Hill ; the faid void Space 
being alfo left between both the faid Walls, that the 
Waters ifTuing out of the Hill, and meeting there, might 
have their free Courfe in fuch a Manner, as to do no 
Damage to the Edifice. The Manner of this Temple 
was Pycnoflylos. The Architrave and Frize were equal 
in the Front, to receive an Infcription ; fome Letters 
whereof are frill legible. The Ovolo of the Cornice 
above the Frize is different from any I have ever yet (km: 
And as there are two Ovolos in the Cornice, this Variety 
is made with great Judgment. The Modilions of this 
Cornice are fo ordered, that there comes an empty Space, 
and not a Modilion, directly over the Center of the Co- 
lumn, as it occurs alfo in fome other Cornices : Altho' a 
Modilion mould come juft over the Middle of the Column, 
according to the regular Way of Working. 

l A.The Space between the two Walls. \ 

B. 'The Butments againfl the Hill. 

C. The Spaces between the Butments. 

D. A Scale of 50 Vicentine Feet. 

The particular * Members of the Portico at large. 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave. 

D. The Frize. 

E. The Cornice. 

F. The Soffita of the Architrave between the Columns. 

G. A Three-foot Scale divided into 1 44 Parts. 

H. A large Pannel taking up the whole Architrave and 
Frize to place the Infcription upon. 

* Plate LIV. 




Concerning the Pantheon, now calPd the Rotunda, 

^F all the Temples now to be feen in Rome, no 
one is more celebrated than the Pantheon, at prefent 
call'd the * Rotunda; nor indeed, that is more perfect 
and compleat, fince it appears almoft in its original State, 
with refpecl: to the Edifice, but ftript of all its Statues and 
other Decorations. Some are of Opinion, that it was 
erected by Marcus Agrippa, about the 14th Year of Chrift : 
But I am inclinable to believe, that the Body of the Tem- 
ple was built in the time of the Republick, and that 
Agrippa added only the Portico to it, which may be 
inferred from the two Frontons in the Front of it. This 
Temple was called the Pantheon, either becaufe, after 
jfupiter, it was dedicated to all the Gods ; or, as others 
are of Opinion, becaufe it is circular, or bears the Figure 
of the World. The Height of it from the Floor to the 
Opening at the top (from whence it receives all its Light) 
is the Diameter of its Breadth from one Wall to the 
other : And as People defcend to the Floor, fo formerly 
they afcended to it by fome Steps. Amongft the moft 
celebrated Things which we read were in this Temple, 
were the Ivory Statue of Minerva made by Phidias ; and 
that of Venus, which had the one half of that Pearl for 
an Ear-ring, whereof Cleopatra difTolv'd the other half, and 
drank it at Supper to exceed the Liberality of Anthony. This 
half only cf that Pearl was valued, as is reported, at 250 
Thoufand Ducats of Gold. This whole Temple, both 
without and within, was of the Corinthia?i Order. The 
Bafes are compounded of At tick and lonick ; and the Ca- 
pitals are carv'd with Olive Leaves. The Architraves, 

* Plate LV. 

M m m Frizes, 

228 PALLAD I O's 

Frizes, and Cornices, have beautiful Mouldings, but other- 
wife very little Carving. In the Thicknefs of the Wall there 
are certain void Spaces left quite round the Temple, the 
better to preferve it againft Earthquakes, and to fave Ex- 
pence and Materials. This Temple has a moft beautiful Por- 
tico in Front, on the Frize whereof is this Infcription, 

M. AGrippa. L. F. Cos. III. fecit. 

Under it (that is, in the Fafcias of the Architrave) is the 
following Infcription in fmaller Letters, which fhews, that 
the Emperors Septimius Severus and Marcus Aurelius re- 
pair'd this Temple, confum'd with Age : 

Imp. Ceef. Septimius. Severus. Pius. P ertinax.Arabicus. 

Parthicus. Pontif. Max. Trib. Pot. XI. Cos. III. P.P.Procos. 

Et. Imp. Ccef. Marcus. Aurelius. Antonius. 

Pius. Felix. Aug. Trih. Pot. V. Cos. Procos. 

Pantheum. vetuftate. (confumtum) 

Cum. omni. cultu, rejiituerunt. 

In the Thicknefs of the Wall within the Temple, there 
are (even Chapels with Niches, wherein there muft have 
been Statues of courfe ; and a Tabernacle between one 
Chapel and another ; fo that there are in all eight Ta- 
bernacles. There are feveral who are of Opinion, that the 
Chapel in the Middle over-againft the Entrance is not 
antient, becaufe the Arch thereof breaks into fome of the 
Columns of the fecond Order ; but that in the Times of 
Chriftianity, flnce Pope Boniface^ who firft confecrated this 
Temple to our divine Service, this Chapel is added, as be- 
comes Chriflian Churches, in order to have one particular 
Altar larger than all the reft. However, fince I perceive 
that it agrees perfectly well with the reft of the Work, 
and that it has all its Members excellently finifhed, I take 
it for granted, that it was made at the fame time with 
the reft of the Temple. This Chapel has two Columns, 
one of a Side, which projed out, and are fluted, the 




{Space between one Groove and another being cabled, and 
accurately fmifhed. 

The Stairs mark'd in the Plan on each Side the En- 
trance lead over the Chapels in a private PafTage, which 
goes quite round the Temple, and whereby one goes out 
to the Steps, to afcend to the top of the Building, by 
other Stairs which are round it. That Part of a Build- 
ing behind the Temple, and mark'd M, is Part of 
Agrippds Baths. 

* Half of the Fore-front. 

•f Half of the Front under the Portico. 

This Temple, as appears by thefe two Draughts, has 
two Frontifpieces ; one in the Portico, and another on the 
Temple Wall. Where you find the Letter A, there are fome 
particular Stones jutting out of the Wall, the life and Ser- 
vice whereof I cannot account for. The Joyfts of the 
Portico are all made of Tables of Copper. 

$ The Elevation in Flank of all the outjide. 
B. Thefecond Cornice, which furrounds the whole Temple, 
|| The Elevation in Flank of the injide of the Portico. 
§ The Decorations of the Portico at large. 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital 

C. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice. 

D. The Moulding of the Decorations ?nade over the Co~ 

lumns and the Pilajiers on the injide of the Portico. 

E. The Plan of the Pilajiers of the Portico, anfwering to 

the Columns. 

F. The turning of the Caulicoles of the Capitals. 

G. The Sqffita of the Architrave between the Columns. 
H. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice of the Door. 
I. The Fejioons which adorn the Jides of the Door. 

** Part of the Elevation of the infide over-againft the 
Entry, where you may fee in what Order the Chapels 

* Plate LVI. 
§ Plate LX. 

+ Plate LVII. 
** Plate LXI. 

% Plate LVIII. 

1 Plate LIX. 


230 PA L LA D /O's 

and Tabernacles are rang'd, and with what Decorations ; 
as alfo how the Squares in the Vaults are comparted, 
which, that they were embellifh'd with Plates of Silver, 
is very probable, by certain Traces remaining there : For 
had fuch Decorations been of Bronze, they would not, 
doubtlefs, have been taken away, no more than thofe 
which, as I have before obferved, are in the Portico. 

* A large Defign of one of the Tabernacles in Front, 
with Part of the Chapels by it. 

■f The Decorations of the Columns and Pilafters on the 
inlide of' the Temple. 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave. 

D. The Frize. 

E. The Cornice. 

F. The turning of the Caulicoles of the Capitals, 

G. The fluting of the Pilafters. 

H.A Three-foot Scale divided into 144 Parts, where- 
with the- /aid Decorations have been meafured. 

% The Decorations of the Tabernacles between the 
Chapels, and wherein may be obferv'd the profound 
Judgment of the Architect, who, in the Architrave, Frize, 
and Cornice of thefe Tabernacles, has made only a large 
Ogee, or Gula-recta, and converted the remainder of the 
Members into a Fafcia, becaufe the Pilafters of the Cha- 
pels were not fo far out of the Wall, as to be able to 
receive the whole Projecture of this Cornice. 

A. The Embafement. 

B. The Bafe. 

C. The Capital. 

D. The Architrave. 

E. The Frize. 

F. The Cornice. 

G. A Three-foot Scale divided into T44 Parts. 

* Plate LXII. t Plate LXIII. % Plate LXIV. 



And with this Temple we Jhall make an End of the 
Draughts of the Temples which are in Rome. 


Concerning ■ the Draughts of fever al 'Temples 
which are out of Rome, or in other Parts of 
Italy ; and firfl, with refpecl to the Temple 
of Bacchus. 

WITHOUT St. Agnes\ Gate, as it is now call'd, 
but diftinguifh'd by the Antients by the Name 
of the Viminal Gate, from Mount Viminalis whereon it 
ftands, the Temple * which follows, and is now confe- 
crated to St. Agnes t may be feen pretty whole and en- 
tire. It was, in my Opinion, a Burying-Place, becaufe 
a very large Coffin of Porphyry was found in it, beautifully 
carv'd with Vines, and little Children gathering the Grapes. 
This has induc'd fome People to imagine, that it was 
the Temple of Bacchus. And fince this is the received 
Notion, and fince it now ferves for a Church, I have 
placed it among the Temples. Before the Portico of it 
may be feen the Footfteps of a Court, which was of an Oval 
Form, and which was embellifh'd, as I imagine,withColumnsj 
as well as that there were feveral Niches, wherein ftood the 
Statues in the Intercolumnation. The Gallery of this Temple, 
by what is now vifible of it, was made with Pilafters, and 
confuted of three Voids. In the inner Part thereof, the 
Columns which fupported the Cupola were rang'd two by 
two. All thefe Columns are of Granate, and the Bafes, 
Capitals, and Cornices of Marble. The Bafes are after 
the Attick Manner, the Capitals are very beautiful, and 

* Plate LXV. 

Nnn of 

^32 PA L LA D /O's 

of the Compofite Order, having fome Foliage, which pro- 
ceeds on each Side from the Rofes, and adds a great 
Grace to the Volutas. The Architrave, Frize, and Cor- 
nice, are but indifferently wrought, which induce me to 
believe, that this Temple was not erected in the good 
Times, but rather under fome of the late Emperors. It 
is inrich'd with a great deal of Work, and with various 
Compartments, partly of fine Stones, and partly of Mo- 
faick, as well in the Floor, as in the Walls and Arches. 

* The Elevation of the outfide of the Temple. 
■f Shews how the Columns are difpofed, to fupport the 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice. 

D. The fpringing of the Arches. 

B.A Two-foot Scale divided into 96 Parts, wherewith 
the /aid Parts are meafured. 




Concerning the temple whqfe Footfleps are feen 
near St. Sebaftian'j Church on the Appian Way. 

WITHOUT St. Sebafians Gate, which formerly 
was called the Appian Gate (from that celebrated 
Way, which with fuch wondrous Art, and at fuch a 
prodigious Expence was made by Appius Claudius) are 
feen the Traces of the following Structure %, near to the 
faid Church of St. Sebafiian. It is very probable that it 

* Plate LXVI. f Plate LXVIL- % Plate LXVIIL 



was wholly built of Brick. A Part of the Galleries which 
furrounded the Court is yet Handing. The Entrance of 
the faid Court had double Galleries ; and on the one fide 
and the other of it, there were Apartments, or Chambers, 
which muft have been for the Service of the Priefts. The 
Temple was in the Center of the Court : And that Part 
which is now feen Handing above Ground, and whereon 
was the Floor of the Temple, is moft folid Work, having 
no Light but from the Doors, and fix little Windows, 
which are in the Niches; for which Reafon it is fome- 
what dark and gloomy, as all the antient Temples for the 
generality are. Before the Front of this Temple, directly 
over the Entrance to the Court, are the Foundations of 
the Portico ; but the Columns are now taken away : I 
have reprefented them, however, in the fame Dimenfions 
and Diftances which they muft have had, as may be 
known by the faid Foundations. 

A. The Plan of the Temple and Portico under the, 


B. The Floor, or Area of the Temple and Portico under 

the faid Area. 

C. The Angular Pilafiers of the Court at large. 

D. The other Pilafiers which confiitute the Galleries 

round the Court* 


Concerning the Temple of Vefta. 

AT Tivoli, about fixteen Miles from Rome, upon 
the Fall of the River Anien, now call'd Teverone, 
is feen the following circular Temple *, which the In- 

* Plate LXIX. 


234 PJLLAD /O's 

habitants of thofe Places allure us, was the Habitation of 
the Tiburtin Sybil. But there is no manner of Foundation 
for this Opinion: And therefore, for the Reafons above, 
this Temple, as I take it, was confecrated to Vejla. It 
is of the Corinthian Order. The Intercolumnations are of 
two Diameters. The Floor is rais'd from the Ground, one 
third Part of the Length of the Columns. The Bafes 
have no Zocco, in order that the Walk under the Portico 
mould be more fpacious and eafy. The Columns are juft 
as long as the Nave is large ; and they incline in fuch 
a Manner towards the Wall of the Nave, that the Naked 
at the top of the Columns falls perpendicularly upon the 
Naked of the Bottom of their Shaft, towards the infide.; 
The Capitals are excellently well executed, and wrought 
with Olive Leaves ; from whence it may be concluded, 
that this Temple was erected in good Times. The Door 
and the Windows are narrower at the Top than at the 
Bottom, according to Vitruvius\ Directions in the flxth 
Chapter of his fourth Book. This whole Temple is of 
Tiburtin Stone, cover'd with the fineft Stone, which makes 
it feem all Marble. 

* The Elevation of the outfide and infide of the Temple, 
•f The Members of the Portico and Cornice at large. 

A. The Bafement that goes round all the Temple. 

B. The Bafe of the Columns. 

C. The Capital. 

D. The Architrave^ Frize, and Cornice. 

E. The Soffita of the Portico. 

F. A Vault that goes round the Portico. < 

G. A Three-foot Scale divided into 144 Parts. 
H. The Decorations of Prize round the Temple. 
% The Decorations of the Door and Windows. 

A. The Decorations of the Door. 

B. The Decorations of the Windows on the outfide. 

C. The Decorations of the Windows om the infide. 

* Plate LXX. + Plate LXXI. \ Plate LXXII. 

D. A 


D. A Two- foot Scale divided into 96 Parts. 

The Fafcias of the Decorations of the Door and the 
Windows are different from what are generally made. 

The Aftragals, under the Cymatiums, project beyond 
them, which is what I have not feen in other Deco- 


Concerning the Temple of Caftor and Pollux, 

IN a very beautiful Part of the City of Naples, be- 
low the Square of the Palace and the Vicaria, is 
feen the Portico of a Temple *, erected and dedicated 
to Caftor and Pollux by Tiberius Julius Tar/us, and by 
PclagOy Auguftuss Free-Man, as appears by its Infcription 
in the following Greek Characters. 

tibepios i0yai02 tapsos aios kotpois kai th iioaef 

ton naon kai ta en nag. 

nEAArnN sebastot aiieaetgepos kai EniTPonos 


That is, in Latin, 





The Signification whereof is, that Tiberius Julius 
Tarfus began to erect this Temple, and all the Things 
thereto belonging, in Honour to the Sons of Jupiter 
(viz. Caftor and Pollux) and to the City : And that the 

* Plate LXXIII. 

O o o before*- 

236 PALLAD I O's 

before-mentioned Pelago compleated it at his own Expence, 
and confecrated it. This Portico is of the Corinthian 
Order. The Intercolumnations are more than a Diameter 
and a Half, but not quite two Diameters. The Bafes 
are after the Attick Manner. The Capitals are carved 
with Olive Leaves, and moft accurately wrought. The 
Invention of the Stalks or Caulicoles, which are under the 
Rofe, and which are knotted together, is very fine : They 
iffue out of the Foliage, which, in the upper Part, cover 
the other Stalks that fupport the Horns of the Capital. 
From this Inftance, therefore, as well as from feveral others 
interfperfed throughout this Book, it is manifeft that an 
ArchitecT: may deviate fometimes from the common Me- 
thods or Ufage, provided his Variation be agreeable and 
natural. In the Fronton is a Sacrifice carved in Baflb- 
relievo, by the Hand of a moft excellent Artift. Some are 
of Opinion, that there were two Temples in this Place, 
the one Circular, and the other Square. There remains 
no Foot-fteps of the former one, and the latter one is, 
in my Opinion, Modern: For which Reafon, without 
meddling with the Body of the Temple, I have only 
aiven the Upright of the Front of the Portico in the 
firft Draught. 

* Particular Members at large. 

A. The Baje. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice. 

D. A Four-foot Scale divided into 192 Parts. 

* Plate LXXIV. 




Concerning the ^Temple below Trevi. 

BETWEEN Fuligno and Spoleti, below Trevi y ftands 
the little Temple *, to which the following Draughts 
belong. The Bafement which fupports it is eight Feet 
and a half high ; to which Height you afcend by Steps, 
which proceed from the Sides of the Portico, and end in 
two fmall Porticos, ifTuing out of the Remainder of the 
Temple. The Profpett of it is Prqftjlos, and the Columns 
are fet very dole. The Chapel, which is over-againft 
the Entrance of the Nave, is finely decorated, and the 
iluting of the Columns is Spiral : Thefe Columns are of 
the Corinthian Order, as well as thofe of the Porticos, 
and delicately wrought with a beautiful Variety of In- 
taglias. What I laid in the firft Book therefore, appears 
by this Temple, as well as all the others, to be indifpu- 
tably true, viz. that the Ancients, in fuch fort of Structure 
and particularly in the fmalleft, were very curious and 
exadt in polilhing every Part, and fetting them off with 
all the Embelliihments imaginable, provided they were na- 
tural and graceful : Whereas in the large Edifices, fuch 
as Amphitheatres, and the like, they only polifhed fome 
particular Parts, leaving the remainder rough, to fave both 
the Expence and Time that would be required to polifTi all, 
as mall be feen in my Book of Amphitheatre:? which I in- 
tend to publifh in a very fhort Time. 

A. The Plan of the Body of the Temple. 

B. The Plan of the Portico. 

C. The Plan under the Embafement of the Portico, 

D. The Bafe of the Embafement. 
TL.The Dado of the Embafement. 

* Plate LXXV. 

F. The 


F. The Cornice of the /aid Embafement. 

G. The Bafe of the Columns. 

H. The Bafe of the Pilafiers and Columns of the little 

I. The Capitals of the fame. 
K.The Architrave^ Frize, and Cornice* 
L. The Steps which lead to the Temple. 
* The Elevation of Half the Front on the outfde. 
■f- The Elevation of the inner Half 
% The Elevation of the Flank. 
|| The Decorations of the Temple drawn at large, 

A. The Capital. 

B. The Architrave. 

C. The Frize. 

D. The Cornice. 

E. A Two-foot Scale divided into 96 Parts, 


Concerning the Temple of Scifi. 

THE following Temple § is fituate in the Square 
of Scify a City of Umbria* and is of the Corin- 
thian Order. The Pedeftals in this Temple, which are 
placed under the Columns of the Portico, are worthy of 
Obfervation ; becaufe, as I faid before, in all other an- 
cient Temples, where the Columns c the Porticos reach 
the Ground, I never faw one that had Pedeftals. Be- 
tween one Pedeftal and the other are the Steps which go 
up from the Square to the Portico. The Pedeftals are as 
high as the middle Intercolumnation is large, which is 
two Inches larger than the reft. The Manner of this 
Temple is, as Vitruvius calls it, Sjfylos, that is, of two 

* Plate LXXVI. f Plate LXXVII. % Plate LXXVIII, || Plate LXXIX. 
§ Plate LXXX. 



Diameters. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice together* 
are one fifth Part of the Height of the Columns, and 
Something more. The Cornice of the Front, inftead of 
the Modilions, has feveral Leaves, and in the remain- 
ing Part is altogether like that directly over the Co^ 
lumns. The Nave of the Temple is one fourth longer than 
it is large. 


The Elevation of the Front of the temple. 
|( The Decorations at large. 

A. The Pedejlal. 

B. The Bqfe of the Columns, 

C. The Capital. 

D. The Architrave, 

E. The Frize. 

F. The Cornice. 

G. The Foliage carved in the Cornice of the Pediment^ 
infiead of Modilions, 

H. The Acroterias, 

I. A Two-foot Scale divided into 96 Parts* 


Concerning the Draughts of feveral Temples which 
are out of Italy 5 and, in the fir jl Place, con- 
cerning the two 'Temples of Pola. 

1TN Pola t a City of Ijlria^ befides a Theatre, an Am- 
Jt phitheatre, and a Triumphal Arch (which are very 
beautiful Structures, and of each of which I fhall treat, 
and give their Draughts in their proper Place) there are 
on the fame Side of the Square two Temples § of equal 
Dimensions, having the fame Decorations, and being 

* Plate LXXXI. || Plate LXXXlI. § Plate LXXXIII. 

P p p diftant 

240 PA L L A D I O's 

diftant from each other 58 Feet, four Inches. Their 
Draughts follow this Account. The Profped of them 
is Proflylos, and the Manner of them is what Vitruvius 
calls, as I have above obferved, Syfiylos^ which has the 
Intercolumnations of two Diameters,, only that the mid- 
dle Intercolumnation has two Diameters and a Quarter. 
Round thefe Temples there goes a Bafement, on the 
Top whereof they have their Area or Floor, to which 
the Afcent is by Steps, as has been feen in feveral other 
Temples, placed in the Front. The Bafes of the Columns 
are after the Attick Manner, and their Plinth is as 
thick as the Remainder of the Bafe. The Capitals are 
wrought very neatly with Olive Leaves. The Stalks are 
covered with Foliage of Oak Leaves, which Variation 
is feldom feen in others, and merits Obfervation. The 
Architrave likewife is different from the moft Part of 
others, becaufe its firft Fafcia is large, the fecond lefs, 
and the third under the Cymatium ftill lef« ^ Befides, 
thefe Fafcias fhoot out in the lower Part, which was done 
with Defign, that the Architrave might projed the lefs, 
and fo not conceal the Infcription on the Frize of the 
Front, which is as follows : 


The Foliage of the faid Frize furround the other Parts 
of the Temple. The Cornice has but a few Members, 
and is wrought with the ufual Intaglias. The Decora- 
tions of the Door are loft ; but I have made them juft 
as I imagine they ought to have been. The Nave is a 
fourth Part longer than it is large. The whole Temple, 
taking in the Portico, is longer by two Squares than it is 

A. The Steps leading to the Temple* 

B. Ihe Portico. 

C. The Body of the Temple. 

* The Elevation of a Part of the Temple in Flank. 

* Plate LXXXIV. 

A. The 


A. The Decorations of a Door of my own Invention* 

B. The Prof I of the Bell of the Capital, 

C. A three Foot Scale divided into 144 Parts. 

* The Elevation of the Front of the /aid Temple. 

A. The Steps leading to the Temple. 

B. A Part of the Portico. 

% The Decorations at large. 

A. The Pedejlal, or the Embafenient of the Temple* 

B. The Bafe of the Columns, 

C. The Capital. 

. D. The Architrave. 

E. The Frize. 

F. The Cornice. 

G. A Part of the Plan of the Capital. 

N. B. The Scale whereby the faid Decorations have been 
meafured, is in Plate 84, Letter C. 

£^@g@©@@S© ? ®l© ! l® 


Concerning the two ^temples of Nimes ; and 
firft) with refpecl to that calFd la Maifon 
Quarre, or the Square Houfe* 

IN JVimeSj a City of Languedoc, the Native Country 
of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, the two following 
Temples are feen, among many other magnificent and 
curious Remains of Antiquity. § This, whereof I am 
firft going to difcourfe, is call'd by the Inhabitants of 
the Place la Maijon ^uarre, or the Square Houfe, be- 
caufe it is built in a quadrangular Form ; and they in- 
form us, that it was a Baflica, or Court of Juftice (of 
which Baflicas, their Ufe and Manner of Erection, I 

* Plate LXXXV. t -Plate LXXXVI. § Plate LXXXVII. 


242 PA L LA D /O's 

have already treated at large in the third Book, accord- 
ing to the Rules laid down by Vitruvius) but as their 
Form was loft, I am apt to think this lower Building to 
have been a Temple. The ProfpecT: and Manner of it, 
is manifeft enough from what has been already faid of 
fo many other Temples. Its Floor is elevated from the 
Ground ten Feet five Inches. For a Bafement all round 
it there is a Pedeftal, upon the Cymatium whereof are 
two Steps, which fupport the Bafe of the Pillars. And 
Vitruvius, in all Probability, meant fuch Steps, when, 
at the Clofe of the third Chapter of his third Book, he 
fays, That in making a co?itinual Embafement round a 
Tetnphy the Scamilli (which probably may be thefe Steps, 
or elfe Zoccos) under the Bafes of the Columns ought to 
be made unequal, falling direSlly plum over the Naked 
of the Pedeflaly which is under the Colum?is y and being 
equal wider the Bafe of the Column and above the Cy- 
matium of the Pedeflal. This Paffage has incited the 
Attention of feveral Architects. The Bafe of this Bafe- 
ment has but few Members, and is thicker ( as 1 
have elfewhere directed mould be done in Pedeftals ) 
than the Cymatium. The Bafe of the Columns is 
Attick, but has likewife fome Aftragals, from whence 
it may be properly call'd Cotnpofite^ and agreeable to 
the Corinthian Order. The Capitals are wrought with 
Olive Leaves, and have the Abacus carv'd. The Rofe 
placed in the midft of the Fore-part of the Capital 
takes up the Height of the Abacus and the Fillet of 
the Bell ; which, as I have before obferved, is follow'd 
in all the antient Capitals of this Sort. The Architrave, 
Frize, and Cornice, are one fourth Part of the Length 
of the Columns, and all the Parts of them are very 
curioufly carv'd. The Modilions are different from ail 
I have ever ieen, and this Difference of theirs from the 
common Sort is very ornamental : And as the Capitals 
are wrought with Olive Leaves, thefe are carv'd with 
Oak Leaves. Over the Gula-re&a, inftead of a Filet, 

k carvd an Ovolo, which is feen but in a hw Cor- 


nices. The Fronton is exa&ly finifh'd according to Vi- 
truvius\ Directions, in the Place above-quoted. Becaufe 
of nine Parts of the Length of the Cornice, one is put in 
the Height of the Fronton under its Cornice. The Jambs 
or Pilafters of the Doors are thick in Front, one fixth Part 
of the Largenefs of the Light, or void Space. This Door 
has feveral curious Decorations, and is perfectly well carv'd. 
Over its Cornice, and even with its Jambs, are two Pieces 
of Stone wrought like Architraves, and projecting out of 
the faid Cornice. In each of them is a large fquare Hole, 
about ten Inches and a Half every Way, thro' which they 
let down, as I imagine, fome certain long Pieces that reach 
to the Ground, in order to fupport an additional Door, to be 
taken up or down as Occasion may require, and made after 
the Manner of a Lattice, that the People who ftand with- 
out might fee was done in the Temple, without being any 
Hindrance or Interruption to the Priefts. 

A. The Steps which lead to the Temple. 

B. The Portico of the Temple. 

C. A Plan of the two bord Stones, which projetl over the 
Cornice of the Door. 

D. The Holes of ten Inches and a Half Square in the mid- 
dle of the faid Stones. 

E. The Door of the Temple. 

F. The Body of the Temple. 

'* The Elevation of the Front of the Temple. 
\ Tloe Elevation of the Flank. 
% Part of the Members at large. 

A. The Bafe 

B. The Cymatium 

C. The Bafe of the Columns. 

D. Half of the Capital. 

E. The Architrave. 

F. The Frize a?id the Foliage carved in it. 

G. The Cornice. 

>of the Pedeflal. 


* Plate LXXXVIII. + Plate LXXXIX. X Plate XC. 

Q^q q H. The 

244 PA L L d D I O's 

H. The Decorations of the Door. 

I. 'The Scrowls of the Door in Front. 

K. The Profil of thefaid Scrowl. 

L. The Stone over the Cornice. 

M. A three-foot Scale divided into 144 Parts. 


Concerning the other ^Temple of Nimes. 

THE following Draughts appertain to the other 
* Temple of Nimes, which, as the Inhabitants of 
that City report, was formerly the Temple of Vefia ; but, 
in my Opinion, that cannot be, not only becaufe the 
Temples of Vefia were made circular, after the Form of 
the Earth, whereof fhe was reputed to be the Goddefs ; 
but becaufe the PalTages on three Sides of this Temple 
were inclofed with Walls, wherein were the Doors to the 
Sides of the Cell, and the Door of the Nave it felf in the 
Front, fo that it could receive no manner of Light from 
any Quarter. Now, as no Reafon can be ailigned why 
dark and gloomy Temples mould be confecrated to Vefia, 
this Temple was dedicated, in my Opinion, to fome of the 
infernal Deities. In the inner Part there are fome Taber- 
nacles, wherein there muft have been Statues. The infide 
of the Temple, over-againft the Door, is divided into 
three Parts. The Area, or Floor of the middle Part, is even 
with the reft of the Temple : The other two Parts have 
their Floors raifed to the Height of the Pedeftals, and you 
go up to them by two Pair of Stairs, beginning in the Paf- 
fages, which, as I have before obferved, come round this 
Temple. The Pedeftals are fomewhat higher than the 
third Part of the Length of the Columns. The Bafes of 

* Plate XCI. 




the Columns are compounded of the Attick and tonickj 
and have a delicate Profil. The Capitals like wife are Com- 
pofite, very accurately wrought and polifhed. The Ar- 
chitrave, Frize, and Cornice have no Intaglias ; and the 
Decorations of the Tabernacles, which are round the 
Nave, are very plain and fimple. Behind the Columns 
which are over-againft the Entry, and form, according to 
our Manner of fpeaking, the great Chapel, there were fquare 
Pilafters, which have Compofite Capitals alike, but diffe- 
rent from thofe of the Columns, nay, different among 
themfelves ; becaufe the Capitals of the Pilafters next the 
Columns have different Intaglias from the other two : But 
all of them have fo agreeable and beautiful a Form, and 
are of fuch an extraordinary Invention, that I do not re- 
member I have feen any Capitals of that Kind better 
or more judicioufly compafs'd. Thefe Pilafters fupport the 
Architraves of the Chapels on the Sides, whereto you go 
up, as I faid before, by the Stairs of the Paffages ; and are 
therefore larger this Way than the Columns are thick 
which is worth the Reader's Obfefvatiori. The Columns 
which are round the Nave, bear up certain Arches made of 
fquare Stones : And the Stones which make the greater 
Vault of the Temple, are placed from one of thefe Arches 
to the other. This entire Fabrick is made of fquare Stones, 
and cover'd with flat ones, fo dilpos'd, that the End of one 
comes over the Beginning of the other, fo that no Wet 
can poffibly penetrate through them. I have been more 
curious and exact about thefe two Temples, becaufe they 
feemed to me to be Structures which deferved the utmoft 
Consideration ; and by which it may be known, that it was 
the peculiar Property, as it were, of that Age, to underftand 
the true Way of Building every where. 


Half what appears of the infide over-againft the Door, 
f The Elevation of Part of the Flank infide. 

'■■ ' ■ '■ — ■ - - iii - - -"'■- - - ■ - ■ 

* Plate XCII. f Plate XCIII. 

* The 

246 PALLAD I 0\ 

* The Decorations of the Tabernacles, Columns and Sof- 
Jitas. The following Letters refer to them all. 

A. The Pedeftal. 

B. The Bqfe of the Column and Pilafiers. 

C. Plan of the Capital. 

D. The Capital of the Columns. 

E. The Prof I of the Capital without the Volutas. 

F. The Architrave, Prize and Cornice over the Columns. 

G. The Capital of the Pilafiers behind the middle Columns. 
H. The Capital of the other Pilafiers. 

I. The Architrave, Frize, and fmall Cornice over the 
Pilafiers behind the middle Columns. 

K. The Decorations of the Tabernacle between the Columns 
round the Temple. 

L. The Decorations of the Tabernacle of the great Chapel 
in the middle of the Temple. 

M, N, O. The Compartments of the Soffita of the faid 

N. B. The Compartments above-mention'd have been 
defign d by a fmailer Scale. 

P. A Three-foot Scale divided into 144 Parts. 


Concerning the two other Temples in Rome ; and 
jirfl with refpecl to the Temple of Concord. 

BESIDES the Temples above delineated, when I 
difcourfed of fuch as are in Rome, at the Foot of the 
Capitol, not far from the Arch of Septimius (where the 
Roman Forum began) may be feen the Columns of the 

* Plate XCIV. 



Portico of the following * Temple ; which, purfuant to a 
Vow, was erected by Furius Camillus, and, according to 
fome, confecrated to Concord. The publick Affairs were 
frequently here debated ; and we may reafonably conclude, 
that this Temple was devoted to that Service, fince the 
Priefts would not permit the Senate to convene about State 
Affairs, except only in the confecrated Temples, and fuch 
only were confecrated as were eredted according to the 
Directions of the Augurs ; for which Reafon, and on Ac- 
count of their debating in fuch Places on the neceffary Oc- 
casions of the Government, the Temples fb made were 
likewife called Curice. Among many Statues with which 
this Temple was embellifhed, fome Hiftorians make men- 
tion of that of Latona, holding Apollo and Diana her 
Children in her Arms - y as alfb the Statue of JE/culaptus, and 
his Daughter Hygeia, or Health ; thofe of Mars, Miner- 
va, Ceres, Mercury, and that of ViSlory, which was in the 
Fronton of the Portico, and which was Thunder-fhuck in 
the Confulfhip of Marcus Marcellus, and Marcus Vale- 
rius. By what may be collected from the Infcription 
which frill remains on the Frize, this Temple was deftroy'd 
by Fire, and afterwards re-edified by the Direction of the 
Senate and People of Rome ; from whence I am inclinable 
to believe, that it is not fo beautiful and compleat as the firft. 
The Words are thefe, 


That is, " The Senate and People of Rome rebuilt this 
" Temple confum'd by Fire." The Intercolumnations are 
fomewhat lefs than two Diameters. The Bafes of the 
Columns are compounded of Attick and Ionick. They are 
different in fome Meafure from fuch as are generally made, 
but very curiouily finifh'd. The Capitals may be faid 

* Plate XCV. 

R r r likewife 

248 PALLAD1 O's 

likewife to be compounded of Dorick and Ionick y and arc 
perfectly well wrought. The Architrave and Frize in the 
Front on the outfide are even with each other, and there is 
no Diftin&ion between them, that an Infcription might be 
put there : But on the infide, that is, under the Portico 
they are divided, and have, as may be feen in their Draughts, 
their feveral Intaglias. The Cornice is plain, that is, with- 
out Intaglias. No Veftiges of the old Walls of the Nave 
are vifible, but the prefent Walls have been made fince, 
and not extremely well : But we know, however, how they 
ought to have been erected. 

A. The Steps which lead to the Temple, 

B. The Portico. 

C. The Body of the Temple. 

* The Elevation of the Front of the Temple. 
■f The feveral Members at large. 

A. The Bafement going round the Temple, 

B. The Bafe of the Columns, 

C. The Front 

D. Half the Plan ±of 

E. The Prof I without the Volutas. 

F. The Architrave^ Frize, and Cornice. 

G. The Architrave and Cornice within the Portico. 
H. A Three-foot Scale divided into 144 Parts. 

* Plate XCVI. f Plate XCVIL 


R C H I T E C T U R E. 249 


Concerning the Temple of Neptune. 

V E R againft the Temple of Mars the Avenger^ 
the Draughts whereof we have given you above, in 
the Place call'd in Pantano, behind Marforio, ftood for- 
merly the following * Temple, the Foundations whereof 
were difcover'd as fome Workmen were digging in order 
to build a Houfe ; and there was a great ftore of Marble 
Stones found likewife, all admirably well wrought. By 
whom it was built, or to what God confecrated, we cannot 
determine ; but iince there are Dolphins carv'd in the Frag- 
ments of the Cymatium of its Cornice ; and fince in fome 
Places between the Dolphins there are Tridcnta, I pi-efume 
it was confecrated to Neptune, Its Profpe£t was Peripteros } 
or wing'd-round : Its Manner Pycnojlylos^ or thick fet with 
Columns. The Intercolumnations thereof were the eleventh 
Part of the Diameter of the Columns, wanting a Diameter 
and a Half ; which I think worthy of Obfervation, fince 1 
I never faw in any other antient Fabrick fuch fmall Inter- 
columnations. Tho' no Part of this Temple is now Hand- 
ing, yet from the Ruins of it, which are many, it was pof- 
iible to come at the Knowledge of the whole ; that is, the 
Plan, the Elevation, and the particular Members, which 
are all artfully wrought. 

f The Elevation of Half the Fronts without the Portico, 

A. The Door of the Temple. 

B. The Architrave round the Door* 

C. The Frize. 

D. The Cornice. 

E. A Six-foot Scale divided into 288 Parts. 

* Pkte XCVIII. f Plate XCIX. 


150 PA L L A D I 0\ &c. 

* The Elevation of Half the Front under the Portico^ 
that is, the firfl Columns being removd. 

F. The Prof I of the Pilaflers round the Nave of the 
Temple, over-againfl the Columns of the Porticos. 

G. The Coriola of the Wall of the Nave on the outfide, 
whereon begins the Divifon of the ruflick Mafonry of the 

H. The Prof I of the ruflick Mafonry of the Wall. 
I. A Six-foot Scale divided into 288 Parts, 
•f The particular Members at large. 

A. The Bafe. 

B. The Capital. 

C. The Architrave, Frize, and Cornice. 

% The Compartments, and the Intaglias of the Soffitas of 
the Porticos round the Nave. 

E. The Prof I of the Soffitas. 

F. A Three-font Scale divided into r 44. Parts. 

G. The Soffita of the Architrave between one Capital and 

* Plate C. f Plate CI. J Plate CII. 



j-jE & E a re the two Prints * / mentioned at the End of 
■*- ± thefecond Book, which were probably mifiayd during 
the Hurry offo laborious an Edition made by Palladio of his 
Works. Perhaps, as Mr. de Cambray thinks, they were not 
drawn till afterwards, inte?idi?ig them for a fecond Edition, 
'which, in all probability, he would have e?nbellijhed with 
many ?nore of the like Nature ; as may be collected from what 
he f aid above in the 25 th Chapter, wherein he promifes in a 
Jhort time to publijh his Draughts of the Amphitheatres ; be- 
fides what he had already pro?nifed in the 1 gth Chapter of 
the firfi Book with refpeEl to the Triumphal Arches : But as 
that Part of his Works has not appeared in Publick, we may 
reafonably conclude that he did not live long enough to acco7n- 
plifh his Defign. This Temple is of the Dorick Order, and 
tho\ to all outward Appearance, very plain andfmple, it was 
notwithftanding placd by Ant. Labaco a?nong the antient 
Fabricks. Palladio mentions it likewife in the 15 th Chapter 
of his firfi Book, where he difiingui/hes it by the Na?ne of the 
Temple of Piety. Itfeems likewife that Vitruvius has had the 
fame in View in the third Chapter of his fourth Book, where 
he fpeaks of the Inconveniencies which attend the angular 
Trygliphes, fou?id i?i the Eritablature of this Te?nple. It is an 
authentick Precedent, however, for the Opinion of fuch as 
maintain it to be a?i Error to add a Bafe to the Dorick Co- 
lumns, fence the Antients never did ; and to be a peculiar 
Propriety of that Order. The A?itiquity of this Structure, 
and the Occajion of its being built, fiill render it more valu- 
able. It is the receivd Opinion, that it fiands on the very 
Spot of Ground where that memorable Deed of theyounv Wo- 
man happened, who knowing her Father to be fentenced to be 
fiarvd to Death in that Prifo?t, came every Day privately 
to give him Suck. The Story is univerfally known. Pliny 
and Valcr. Maximus relate it, and fay, it happen d under the 
Confulate of L. Quin&ius and M. Acilins, in the Tear oj Rome 
603, and about 148 Tears before the Birth of Jefus Chrift. 

* Plate CHI. and CIV. 


<Jcaic af ' /enefcm ^cci- 


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Of the moft remarkable Things contain'd iri 

this Work. 

N. B. "That I deiiotes the firji and fecond Books, II the 
third and fourth Books ; the Cyphers denote the Number 
of the Page quoied. 

yjGRIPPA buiic no more of the Pantheon, than the Portico, IIj 
y^f Page 227. 

Alejandro Vittoria, a Carver or Sculptor, I, 81. 

Antients, they were very exact and curious in putting together, and 
fitting the Stones of their Buildings, and had a particular Method 
in erecting them, I, 24. Made no Pedeftals to the Columns of the 
Dorick Order, I, 35. Nor often any Balis proper to that Order, 
Ibid. II, 253. Made their Gates fometimes wider at the Bottom than 
at the Top, I, $j. II, 234. How they made their Chimneys, 1, 63; 
Ufed to make the Seeps of their Stair-Cafes of an odd Number, and 
why, I, 66. Built Porticos and Piazzas round their Markets or pub- 
lick Places, II, 168. Their Manner in Building of Temples, II, 187, 
201. They took a particular Care to perfect and finifh fmall Build- 
ings, but in the large ones contented themfelves to finifh here and 
there a Piece, II. 237. 

Anfelmo Canera of Verona, a Painter, I, 82, 107. 

Apelles a moft antient Painter, Aiigujlus caufed two of his Pictures to 
be placed in the moft remarkable Place of the Temple dedicated to 
Mars the Avenger, II, 202. 

Architects alive under the Papacy of "Julius the Second, II, 222. Are 
to follow Nature, I, 49. May fometimes deviate from the common 
Way, II, 236. 

Atrium, or Entry of the Tufcans, I, 85. That with four Pillars, ibid. 
86. The Corinthian, ibid. 87. The Teftudinated, or Tortoife-likc 
Entry, ibid. 89. " 

Augujius the Emperor erected a Temple to Mars the Avenger, II, 20.: 

B. Baf~ 

A TABLE, &c. 


Baptijlery, or Baptifmal Font of Conjiantine the Great, II, 220. 

Bartolomeo Ridolfi, a Carver of Verona, I, 79, 107. 

Baths, cold and warm, in the Palejlrce of the Greeks, or Places of pub- 
lick Exercifes, II, 175. 

Battijla Franco, a great Draughts-Man. I, 103. 

Battijla Maganza, a Vicentine Painter, ibid. 109. 

Battijla del Moro, a Veroneze Painter, ;&V. in. 

Battijla Venetiano, a Painter, z£/V. 103, 106, in. 

Bafiticce, or Courts of Juftice of the Antients, their Ufe and Conftruftion, 
II, 169. A Draught of the Bafilica at Vicenza, ibid. 173. An an- 
tient one at Nimes in Languedoc, ibid. 24 1. 

Barnardino India, a VeroneJ'e, and a Painter, I, 82, 107. 

Bramante^ an excellent Architect, and the Reftorer of Architecture, 
II, 222, 223. 

Brafs, and Corinthian Brafs, their Compofition and Ufes, I, 16. Which 
way beft preferved, ibid. 

Bridges, what ought to be confider'd in their Conftrudtion, II, 138, 139. 
The Sublician Bridge at Rome, ibid. 140. Julius Ca/ars Bridge over 
the Rhine, ibid. 142, 143, 144. Of the Bridge on the Cijmone, ibid. 
145, 146. Three different Methods of conftruing Wooden Bridges, ib. 
147 to 150. Wooden Bridge near Bajfano, built by Palladia, ibid. 
151, 152. Of Stone Bridges, ibid. 153 tn 155. Some of the moft 
reputed Bridges among the Antients, ibid. 155 to 157. Several other 
Bridges defcribed; fome of our Author's Invention at Vicenza and 
other Places in Italy, ibid. 158 to 162. 


Capitals of the Ionick Order, in the Angles of a Temple, feen in Front 
and in Flank, II. 216. 

Cartoufes, or Scrowls, a modern Ornament in Architecture, and an Eye- 
fore to Artifts, I, 50. 

Chalk, or Lime, the manner of killing it, I, 12. 

Chambers or Rooms, their Dimenfions, and feven different Manners to 
make them proportionate, I, 51, 52. Of their Height, ibid. 54. 
Of the Compartition or Diftribution of Chambers, ibid. Chambers 
of the fame Story muft have the fame Dimenfions, ibid. 

Chimneys, and their Conftru&ion, I, 63. 

Churches, that of St. George at Venice, built by Palladio, II, 189. Chri- 
ftian Churches very like the Bafilica of the Antients, and why, II, 
198. A Defcription of them, ibid. 

Cielifigs of Rooms, and their different Manner, I, 53. 

Claudius the Emperor began the Temple of Peace, II, 200. 

Columns, of their Swelling and Diminution, I, 28. Thofe of rhe Dorick 
Order, as in the Temple of Piety, have no Bafis or Pedeftal, ib. 35, 
36. 11,253. The jointed Columns made of feveral Pieces, blamed 
by Palladio, I, 51. Columns yet to be feen at the Foot of the 
Capitol in the Forum Romanum, very beautiful, II, 225. Four Brafs 
Columns at Rome in the Church of S. Giovanni Later ano, I, 16. 
Columns of a lefs Height than the Portico, II, 238. 

Compartments of Streets in a City, II, 132. 

Con [1 deration which one ought to have before he begins to build, I, 7. 

Covali, great Caves near Vicenza, formerly Quarries, out of which Gentle- 
men derive very cold Winds to cool their Houfes in hot Weather, I, 63. 


A TABLE, &c. 

Convent of Charity at Venice defcrib'd, I, 87, 88. 
Corinthian Brafs ; See Brafs. 
Courts of Judicature ; See Bafilicee. 
Covering of Buildings, I, 69. 


Diminution of Columns ; See Columns. 

Dining-Rooms ; See Parlours or Halls. 

Dominico Rizzo, a Painter, I, 79. 

Doors, their Proportions and Ornaments, I, £j to 62. 


E//0 d!?/' Zfc///, Son of Valeria, famous for painting in Brooch and cutting 

of Cryftal, I, the Author to the Reader. 
Errors or Abufes in Architecture, common to mod modern Builders, I, 49. 


Flaminius caufed that High-way to be made, which bore his Name, II, 135. 

Floors of Rooms, and the different Way of Flooring, I, 53. 

Form of Temples, what is becoming to be obferv'd about them, II, 187 

to 190. 
Foot of Vicenza, is the Meafure of Palladio, I, yj. 
Foundations, what Rules to be obfervcd to lay a. gaud Foundation, I, 17 

to 19. 
Frontijpieces, or Roofs over Doors ought not to be divided, and why, I, 50, 


Gates, very antient ones of Brafs to be feen at Rome to this Day, I, 16. 

Giallo Florentino, a Painter, I, 102. 

Giovanni Indemio, a Painter at Vicenza, ibid. no. 

Ground, which fitteft to build upon, ibid. 17 to 19. 

Gualterio, a Painter of Padua, ibid. in. 


Halls, Dining-Rooms, or Parlours: Thofe with four Columns, I, 91. 
The Corinthian, and thofe after the /Egyptian Manner, ibid. 91, 92. 

High-ivays, or publick Roads without the Cities, what Method to make 
them commodious and ufeful, II, 135. The Conveniency and particu- 
lar Make of the High- way to OJtia, ibid. 1^6. 

Horfes on Monte Cavallo, one made by Praxiteles, and the other by 
Phidias, II, 213. 

Houfes for the City, and the different Method in building them, I, jj to 
84. Houfe of Count Gianni Battifta delta 'Torre at Verona, ibid. 80. Of 
Count Ipppo de Port at Vicenza, ibid. 79. Of Signor Floriana An- 
tonini at Udene, ibid. 78. Of Signor Giuglio Capra of Vicenza, ibid. 
83. Of Count Montana Barbarano of Vicenza, ibid. 84. Of Count 
Oftaviano de Thieni at Vicenza, ibid. 81. Of Signor Paolo Armerico of 
Vicenza, ibid. 82. Of Count Valerio Chiericato of Vicenza, ibid. 78. 
Of the Counts Valmarana of Vicenza, ibid. 82. 

Houfes for the Country, their Situation, ibid. 95 to 98. Their Compart- 
ment, ibid. 98 to 100. How the Antients built them, ibid. 113, 1:4. 

Houjes built in the Country, by noble Venetians ; that at Mazera in the 
Trivigian, of Daniel Barbara, and Antonio Barbara, I, 103. Of 
Nicolo and Luigi de Fofcari on the Brent a, ibid. 202. Of Francijco 

Ttt Badoer.o 

A TABLE, @V . 

Badoero in the Polefine, ibid. Of Francifco Pifano in the Paduan, 
ibid. 104. Of Georgio Cornaro in Piombino, ibid. Of Leonardo Emo t 
ibid. 105. Of Leonardo Mocemgo at Morocco, ibid. Of Marco Zeno 
at Cafalto in the Trivigian, ibid. 102. Of the Counts Marco, VicJor, 
and Daniel Pi/ani at Bagnolo in the Vicentin, ibid. 10 1. 
Houfes built in the Terra Ferma, of the State of Venice for the Country- 
Houfes of Count Annibal Sarego at L# M/g*, I, 112. Of Biagio Sa- 
raceno in the Vicentin, ibid. 106. Of the Counts Francifco and Z,w- 
i«« TriJJini at Meledo, ibid. 108. Of Count Giacomo Angarano in 
the Vicentin, ibid. no. Of Gio Francifco Valmanara at Liziera, ibid. 

107. Of Girolamo de Godi in the Vicentin, ibid. no. Of Girolamo 
Ragona at Ghizzole, ibid. 107. Of Marfo Repeta at Campiglia, ibid. 

108. Of Count Mznr Antonio Sarego near Verona, ibid. in. Of 
the Counts Edward and "Theodora de Thieni at Ciccgna, ibid. 109. Of 
Count Ottavo Thieni at Quinto, ibid. 1 10. Of the Knight Pogliana 
at Pogliana in the Vicentin, ibid. i®y. 

Houfe (or rather a Temple) at Nimes in Languedoc, call'd the Square- 
Houfe, II, 241. 


Inter-Columns, and their Proportion with Columns, I, 29. 
^^» George TriJJino, a Gentleman of Vicenza, very well skill'd in Archi- 
tecture, I, Preface rn rhe Reader. 
^w»tt of Stones, See Antients. 

Jeyfs, the Diftance which ought to be betwixt them, I, 53. 
/row, its Ufes, Marks of Goodnefs, I, 14. 
i^r, Patronefs of Trade and Mechanick Arts, II, 167. 
Julius Cafar built a Bridge over the Rhine, its Structure, II, 142 to 145. 


Laconic, the Sweating Room in xh&Paleftra of the Antient Greeks, II, 175. 
IW, its Difference and Ufe, I, 14, 15. 
Zi»K?, and how to work it, ibid. 12, 13. 
Lorenzo Vicentino, a Statuary and Sculptor, I, 83. 


Mercury, the God of Trade, II, 167. 
Metals ufed in Building, I, 14. 

Method, or Manner of the Antient Greeks in their Buildings, II, 225, 226. 
Metopas, its Meafure, I, 37. Ought always to be Square, ibid. As ought 
to be the Rofes, or Cafes de Ro/es betwixt the Modilions, II, 200. 201. 
Module, which Palladia ufes, defcrib'd, I, 31. 
Mortar, or Plafter for Flooring, I, 53. 


Orders of Architecture, their Number, I, 27. The Tufcan Order de- 
fcrib'd, ibid. 32 to 34. The Dorick Order, ibid. 35 to 38. The An- 
tients put no Pedeftals under their Dorick Columns ; neither has this 
Order any Bafis peculiar to itfelf : There are many Antient Dorick 
Columns extant without any Bafis, ibid. 35. The lonick Order, ibid. 
38. Its Meafures, ibid. 39 to 42. The Corinthian Order, ibid. 4.3 to 
45. Ufed in the Temples of Venus and Flora, and why? II, 188. 
The Compofite Order, I, 45 to 47. 

P. Palejira, 



Palefirfe, or Xyjii of the Greeks, Places for their publick Exercifes, II, 173.- 

Palladia, our Author, promifes a Book of Antiquities, I, 51. Another 
about Triumphal Arches, II, 164, He was the Architect that Built 
St, George's Church at Venice, II, 189. Promifes a particular Book 
about Amphitheatres, ibid. 237. 

Pantheon, now call'd la Rotunda, ibid. 227 to 230. See Agrippa. 

Pavement of the Antients -, See High-ways* 

Pavements of the Streets in Cities, ibid. 132 to 134. 

Paolo Veronefe, a famous Painter, I, 80. 

Pedejlals, and their different Proportions, ibid. 47. 

Places, Squares, or Markets in a City; how to make them handfome, 
II, 163. The Greek Manner, ibid. 166, 167. The Roman Mannerj, 
ibid. 168, 169. 

Plinth, half the Height of the Bafis of the Column, ibid. 240. 

Porticos, or Piazzas, about publick Places, ibid. 163 to 166. In the 
Paleflrce of the Greeks, ibid. 175, 176. About or before the Tem- 
ples, ibid. 192, 193. 

Prifons employ'd to three different Ufes by the Antients, ibid. 165. What 
ought to be confider'd in the Building of them, ibid. 

Procuracy, a Palace at Venice of the Invention of Sanfovino, I, Preface* 
to the Reader. 

ProfpeSis of the Temples of the Antients various, II, 191, 192. 


Roofs, I, 69. 

Rooms % See Chambers* 


Salinguerra de Efle, Brother-in-Law to Ezzelino Romano, had & Caftle 

at la Fratra in the Pole fine, I, 102. 
Sand, the different Sorts made Ufe of in Building, 1^ 11; 
Sanfovino, a famous Sculptor and Architect, I> Preface to the Reader. 
Scamilli, what Vitruvius meant by them, in the Opinion of Palladio, II, 242^ 
Scrolls; See Cartoufes. 
Situation, which beft for Temples or Churches, II, 185. Which beft 

for Country-Houfes, I, 95. 
Staircafes, different Manner of building them, I, 65 to 69. The well con- 

triv'd Stair-Cafe of the Caftle of Cbambor near Blois in France, ib. 68,; 
Stones, which fit for Building, and their Differences, I, 10, 11. High 

Stones on the Roman Highways, marking the Number of Miles, and 

directing the Roads, II, 137. 
Stoves, or hot Baths in the Greek Paleflra, II, 17^, 176. 
Streets, and their Compartments in Cities, II, 132 to 134. 
Swellings of the Columns, I, 28. 


Temples, what the Antients obferv'd concerning their Situation or Stand- 
ing, II, 185 to 187. Their Form, ibid. 187 to 190. Their various 
Profpedts, ibid. 191 to 193. How many forts of them, ibid. 193 to 195. 

'Temple below Trevi, betwixt Fulgino and Spoleto, very antient, II, 237^ 

238. That of Scifi, ibid. 238, 239. That of Pola in Iftria, ibid, 

239. That of Nimes in Languedoc, ibidi 241 to 248. 



'Temples dedicated to Antoninus and Faujlina, ibid. 207 to 209. To 
Bacchus, ibid. 231. To Cajior and Pollux at Naples, ibid. 235. To 
Concord, ibid. 246. To Manly Fortune, ibid. 214. The Temple call'd 
de Galluce, ibid. 211. That of Jupiter on Monte Cavallo, ibid. 212, 
213. That of Jupiter Stator, ibid. 224, 225. That of Mars the 
Avenger, ibid. 202 to 204. That of Neptune, ibid. 251, 252. That 
of Nerva Trajanus, ibid. 204 to 207. That of Peace, which our 
Author doth not believe to have been burnt, and why, ibid. 199 to 
201. That of Piety, ibid. 251. in the Remark. That of the Sun 
and Moon, ibid. 2 10. That of Vejla at Tivoli, call'd by fome the 
Temple of the Sybils, ibid. 233. Another of Vefia at Nimes, ib. 244. 

Temple built by Bramante, called San Pietro Montorio at Rome, ib. 222, 223. 

Trajan repair'd the famous Appian Way, ibid. 129, 130. Built a 
Bridge in Tranfihania over the Danube, ibid. 156. 

Triglyphs, their Meafure, I, 37. 

Timber, which beft for Carpenters, ibid. 9, 10. 

Tufcany was the firft Country in Italy that encourag'd Architecture, 
II, 185. 


Vefpafian, finifh'd the Temple of Peace at Rome, II, 200. 

Vitruvius chofen by Palladia for his Mafter and his Guide, I, To the 

Volute, and its Proportions, I, 40, 41. In lonick Capitals of an Oval 

Figure, II, 215. 


Waters, how to diftinguirti their Goodnefs, I, 97, 

Walls, different Manner of Building them, ibid. 21 to 23. Of cheir 

Parts and Diminution, ibid. 26. 
Windows, their Meafure, Proportion, and Ornaments, ibid, $j to 62. 


Xyfii of the Antient Greeks, what they were, II, 173s 



ANDREA PALLADIO (one of the moll 
*■-*- Learned Architects that Italy has produc'd fince the 
polite Arts begun to revive there) was born in Vicenza, 
a Town belonging to the Republick of Venice. His Parents 
were of mean Extra&ion, but in Consideration of his great 
Abilities, and as a Reward for the Honour he did his Na- 
tive City, he was made free of the fame, and receiv'd 
into the Body of the Nobility. He had for his Mafter the 
Celebrated Giovanni Giorgio Trijftno, under whom he not 
only learnt the moft curious Parts of Civil and Military 
Architecture, but likewife adorn'd his Mind with all Sorts 
of Erudition. He made it his chief Study to fearch into 
the ftately Monuments of o|d Rome, which he examin'd 
with unparallel'd Diligence and Attention. His Pofthu- 
mous Work of the Roman Antiquities, tho' imperfect, does 
yet fufficiently mew how much he made himfelf Mafter of 
the Nobleft Ideas of the Antients : for walking through 
the KubbifTi and other Remains of thefe, he difcover'd the 
true Rules of an Art, which, till his Time, were un- 
known, even to Michael- An gelo and Brunellefchi his Con- 
temporaries. The Exactnefs of his Defigns can't be too 
much commended : 'Tis pity that the Authors, who have 
made mention of him, are filent on the Particulars of his 
Life. They have taken great Pains in giving us a long 
Lift of the line Buildings wherewith he adorn'd his Coun- 
try, but to little purpofe j fince we have them drawn 
and explain'd by himfelf, Jn the fecond and third Books 
of his Architecture. He flourifh'd in the 15th Century, 
and dy'd in the Year 1580. 

U u u 


BOOKS printed for John Wilcox at Virgil'5 
Head, oppofite to the New Church in the Strand. 

A General Dictionary, Historical A Survey of Dorfetfhire, con- 
and Critical, in which a New taining the Antiquities and Natural 
and Accurate Tranflation of that of Hiftory, with the Arms of the prin- 
the Celebrated Mr. Bayle, with the cipal Families, and a new Mapp 
Corrections and Obfervations printed of the County. By the Rev. Mr. Co- 
in the late Edition at Paris, will be ker, fol. 12s. 

included j and interfperfed with fe- The Koran, commonly called the 
veral thoufand Lives never before Alcoran of Mahomed. Tranflated 
publifhed. The whole containing immediately from the Arabick,with 
the Hiftory of the moft illuftrious a large preliminary Difcourfe and 
Perfons of all Ages and Nations, Commentary, with a new Mapp of 
particularly thofe of Great Britain Arabia, and a View of the Temple 
and Ireland, diftinguifhed by their of Mecca. By G. Sale, Gent. 4to. 1 8s. 
Rank, Actions, Learning, and other Two Chronological Differtations 
Accomplifhments : Compiled and on the Birth and Death of Chrift. 
Tranflated by fe veral Hands. The By Nic. Man, Eiq; 8vo. 35. 6d. 
whole will be nine Volumes in folio. Hiftorical Account of Taxes un- 
1/. ys. per Vol. in Sheets. der all Denominations foever, from 
The Naval Hiftory of England the Conqueft, to the Death of K. 
in all its Branches, from the Conqueft George the firft ; collected from the 
in 1066, to 1734. Collected from beft Hiftorians, ancient and modern, 
the moft approved Hiftorians, Eng- likewife from many valuable Ma- 
lifh and Foreign, authentick Records nufcripts in the Cotton and other 
and Manufcripts, fcarce Tracts, Libraries, and feveral Offices in this 
original Journals, &c. By Thomas Kingdom ; intermix'd with manyRe- 
Lediard, Gent. 2 vol. fol. il. 10s. markable Occurrences never before 
The Life of John, Duke of printed. By Capt. J. Stevens, 8vo. §s. 
Marlborough, &c. Containing his The Modern Navigator's Corn- 
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private Tranfactions, but more parti- Theory and Practice, Utility and 
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Victories, &c. under his fole Com- The Builder's Sure Guide ; or, 

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ral Kings, Princes, Emperors, and eafy, with eighty Copper-plates. By 

the moft famous Generals of his B. Langley, 4to. izs. 

Age, and their Characters given Magnum in parvo ; or, the Mar- 

of him ; alfo an Account of all row of Architecture : Being a new 

hisTreatiesandNegociations.Com- Method of drawing the Five Or- 

piled with the utmoft Impartiality, ders of Columns in Architecture. 

from perfonal Knowledge, original By IV. Halfpenny, 4*. 

Papers and Letters ; likewife com- The Builder's Cheft-Book ; or, a 

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Time, both Englifh and Foreign, Columns of Archite&ure. By B. 

and digefted in exact and regular Langley, is. 6d. 

Order ; illuftrated with Maps, Plans A New Treatife of the Conftruc- 

of Battles, Sieges and Medals. 3 tion and Ufeof the Sector. By S. Cun; 

vol. 8vo. iSs. revifed by Ed, Stone, 3^. bd. 


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Syftem of the Planets, demon- 
flrated by Inftruments. By Charles 
Leadbetter, Teacher of the Mathe- 
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A Compleat Syftem of Aftro- 
nomy, 2 vol. 8vo. 125. 

Aftronomy of the Satellites, 8vo. 

2S. ' 

Treaiife of Eclipfes for 35 Years, 
with the Tranfit of Venus and Mer- 
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the Conjunction of Jupiter and Sa- 
turn for 120 Years, 8vo. 2S. 

A Demonftration of the Equation 
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A Defcription of Gunter's Qua- 
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Dial, &c. a very ufeful Book, 1*. 
Thefe fix by Mr. Leadbetter. 

The Bifhop .of Cnmhrn/a To lee - 

and Fables, French and EngUJJo, for 
the Ufe of Schools, 35. 

Holders Treatife of Harmony, 
with Keller's Rules to play and tune 
the Harpfichord, 3*. 6d. 

Le Drand's Parallel of the diffe- 
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out of the Bladder, with Cuts. 

Boerhaave's Treatife of the Force 
and Energy of Medicines, 4*. 

A Natural and Medicinal Account 
of Worms, bred in the Bodies of 
Men and other Animals; taken from 
the Authorities and Obfervations of 
all Authors who have treated there- 
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with proper Remedies to deftroy 
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M. Le Clerc. 8vo. 45. 

The young Analyft's Exercife ; 
being a Collection of an hundred 
Algebraical Problems, exhibiting all 
that is Curious in Simple and Qua- 

dratick Adfected Equations, calcu- 
lated for young Beginners. By Sam. 
A/hby, Teacher of the Mathema- 
ticks, i2mo. z"s. 

An Hiftorical Account of London 
Bridge, with a Propofition for a new 
Stone Bridge at Wejlminjler ; alfo an 
Account of fome remarkable Stone 
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them ; with feveral Plans engrav'd 
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.Efq;4to. 3* 

Hiftory of Poland under Augujlus 
II. 2 vol. 8j. 

The Amorous Adventures and In- 
trigues of Frederick Augujlus II. 
late King of Poland: Containing 
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mentioned in any other Hiftory, 
wkh diverting Remarks on the La- 
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Oeuvres d'Horace par Dacier, 
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and Fren. 4 vol. in 4to. 1/. 8s. 

The fame Book in 10 vol. 

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Le Comedies de Terence, Lat. & 
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Contes de la Fontaine, i2mo. is. 
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